How to structure a multi-file C program: Part 1 ...

A simple guide to financial sovereignty (set up your Bitcoin fullnode)

In 2009, a 9 pages white paper by satoshi Nakamoto described a protocol that made central banking obselete. It's a new paradigm where monney is no longer controlled by a few, but by the whole network.
The shift is already happening, as we speak, even if it's hard to see, especially if you lack the fundamental knowledege of cryptoghraphy, game theory and economics. It's just a matter of time before you realize that Bitcoin is hard money, and for the first time we have a framework to apply austrian economics, without permission. Time to reset the keynesian monopoly game.
I don't think people are inherently bad, it's just that in the actual system (which I call the legacy system) people are incentivised to make decisions that are good from their individual perspective, but unfortunately, the sum of those individual decisions are bad from the collective group perspective. That's just plain simple game theory. What makes Bitcoin so special is it's perfectly aligned set of incentives that makes individuals and collectives outcomes better. It switches the economic model from keynesian to austrian, inflation to deflation, spending to saving, modern slavery (throught debt) to financial sovereingty, de-evolution to evolution. We are currently shifting from fiat to Bitcoin.
What you think capitalism is has nothing to do with what Capitalism really is in a free market. Capitalism is beautiful, it's simply the act of evolution, saving and optimising for consumming only what's needed (don't forget with live in a world with limited ressources, yes we all forgot). Stop spending and start capitalising, that's what we should be doing. But it's near impossible in a world run by socialists imposing debt using violence. What do you think back the US dollar ? gold ? no no, only tanks, aircraft carriers, soldiers and corrupt politicians.
Our only way out of this madness with the minimum violence is Bitcoin.
To be clear, if you dont run a fullnode, then you don't validate the transactions yourself (which is one purpose of running a fullnode). If you don't do the job yourself, then you have no other choice then to trust someone else for it. That's not necesserely a bad thing, as long as you are aware of it. You have no say in what defines Bitcoin, you enforce no rules. You serve no purpose in the Bitcoin realm. Why not !
Now if you seek financial sovereignty and want to take part in the new money paradigm, you will need to operate a fullnode and get your hands a little dirty. This guide hopefuly will take you there while walking you through the steps of setting up your autonomous Bitcoin Core full node.
Why Bitcoin Core ? simply because the Bitcoin core client implement and enforce the set of rules that I myself define as being Bitcoin.



Choose & download the latest binaries for your platform directly from github:
at the time of writing, the latest bitcoin core version is 0.16.2
wget tar -zxvf bitcoin-0.16.2-x86_64-linux-gnu.tar.gz sudo mv bitcoin-0.16.2/bin/* /uslocal/bin/ rm -rf bitcoin-0.16.2-x86_64-linux-gnu.tar.gz bitcoin-0.16.2 # clean 


Make sure the needed ports (8333, 8332) are open on your server. If you don't know, you can & should use a firewall on your server. I use ufw, which stands for uncomplicated firewall.
sudo apt install ufw # install ufw 
configure default rules & enable firewall
sudo ufw default deny incoming sudo ufw default allow outgoing sudo ufw allow ssh # if you operate your server via ssh dont forget to allow ssh before enabling sudo ufw enable 
Once your firewall is ready, open the bitcoin ports :
sudo ufw allow 8333 # mainnet sudo ufw allow 8332 # mainnet rpc/http sudo ufw allow 7000 # netcat transfert (for trusted sync) 
check your firewall rules with sudo ufw status numbered


Start bitcoind so that it create the initial ~/.bitcoin folder structure.
bitcoind& # launch daemon (the & run the copmmand in the background) bitcoin-cli stop # stop the daemon once folder structure is created 


In my case, for a personnal fullnode, I want to run a full txindexed chain. We only live once and i want all options to be possible/available :) If you plan to interact with the lightning network in the future and want to stay 100% trustless, I encourage you txindexing the chain (because you'll need an indexed chain). it's not hard to txindex the chain later on, but the less you touch the data, the better. so always better to start with txindex=1 if you want to go for the long run. It only adds 26Go on top of the 200Go non indexed chain. So it's worth it !
Just to get an idea of the size of the bitcoin core chain (August 23, 2018) :
network folder txindexed height size
mainnet blocks + chainstate yes 538.094 209Go + 2.7Go = 221.7
mainnet blocks + chainstate no 538.094 193Go + 2.7Go = 195.7Go
testnet blocks + chainstate yes - -
testnet blocks + chainstate no 1.407.580 20Go + 982Mo = 21Go
Create a bitcoin.conf config file in the ~/.bitcoin folder. This is my default settings, feel free to adjust to your need. [ see full config Running Bitcoin - Bitcoin Wiki ]
# see full config here # Global daemon=1 txindex=1 rpcallowip= # bind network interface to local only for now server=1 rest=1 # RPC rpcport=8332 rpcuser=admin rpcpassword=password # define a password rpcworkqueue=100 # zmq zmqpubrawblock=tcp://*:8331 zmqpubrawtx=tcp://*:8331 #zmqpubhashblock=tcp://*:8331 #zmqpubhashtx=tcp://*:8331 # numbers of peers. default to 125 maxconnections=10 # utxo cache. default to 300M dbcache=100 # Spam protection limitfreerelay=10 minrelaytxfee=0.0001 

Sync the blockchain

There are 2 ways you can donwload/sync the bitcoin blochain :

Network sync (default)

If this is the first time you are setting up a bitcoin full node, it's the only way to trust the data. It will take time, depending on your hardware and network speed, it could vary from hours to days. You have nothing to do but leave the bitcoind daemon running. check status with bitcoin-cli getblockchaininfo, kill daemon with bitcoin-cli stop.
Remember that this is the only procedure you should use in order to sync the blockchain for the first time, as you don't want to trust anyone with that data except the network itself.

Trusted sync

Skip this chapter if this is the first you're setting up a full node.
Once you operate a fully "network trusted" node, if you'd like to operate other nodes, syncing them from your trusted node(s) will go much faster, since you simply have to copy the trusted data from server to server directly, instead of going throught the bitcoin core network sync.
You will need to transfer the chainstate & blocks directory from the ~/.bitcoin folder of one of your trusted node to the new one. The way you achieve that transfer is up to you.
At the time of writing (August 23, 2018), the txindexed blockchain (chainstate + blocks up to height 538.094) is around 220Go. Moving that quantity of data over the network is not a trivial task, but if the transfer happens between 2 reliable servers, then netcat will be great for the job. (netcat sends raw tcp packets, there is no authentification or resume feature).
Note: with netcat, if one of the servers connection is not stable, and you lose connection, you will have to start again. that's a bummer. in that case you are better of with tools like rsync or rcp that let you resume a transfer.
In order to make the transfer a simple task, make sure you do the following on both of the receiver and the sender server :
Once both your servers (receiver & sender) are netcat ready, proceed as follow :
This is the transfer times for my last data sync between 2 servers hosted at (not too bad) | folder | size | transfer time | - | - | - | blocks | 209Go | 5h20 | chainstate | 2.7Go | 4min

bitcoind as a service

For ease of use and 100% uptime, simply add bitcoind to your system service manager (in my case systemd) create the file /etc/systemd/system/bitcoind.service and add the following to it :
[Unit] Description=Bitcoin daemon [Service] User=larafale RuntimeDirectory=bitcoind Type=forking ExecStart=/uslocal/bin/bitcoind -conf=/home/larafale/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf ExecStop=/uslocal/bin/bitcoin-cli stop KillMode=process Restart=always RestartSec=120 TimeoutSec=240 # Hardening measures #################### # Provide a private /tmp and /vatmp. PrivateTmp=true # Mount /usr, /boot/ and /etc read-only for the process. ProtectSystem=full # Disallow the process and all of its children to gain # new privileges through execve(). NoNewPrivileges=true # Use a new /dev namespace only populated with API pseudo devices # such as /dev/null, /dev/zero and /dev/random. PrivateDevices=true # Deny the creation of writable and executable memory mappings. MemoryDenyWriteExecute=true [Install] 
Don't forget to correct the user name & the bitcoin.conf path. Once the systemd bitcoind config file is created, reload system services and start the bitcoind service:
sudo systemctl daemon-reload # reload new services sudo systemctl enable bitcoind # enable bitcoind sudo systemctl start bitcoind # start bitcoind sudo systemctl status bitcoind # check bitcoind status 
If everything worked, status should output the following:
● bitcoind.service - Bitcoin daemon Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/bitcoind.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since jeu. 2018-08-23 21:17:41 CEST; 5s ago Process: 5218 ExecStart=/uslocal/bin/bitcoind -conf=/home/larafale/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Main PID: 5219 (bitcoind) CGroup: /system.slice/bitcoind.service └─5219 /uslocal/bin/bitcoind -conf=/home/larafale/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf 
The bitcoind service is active and will automatically restart on statup/crash. Wait a couple minutes until the bitcoin-cli getblockchaininfo command returns the chain status. You can also query the rest interface by opening http://nodeIP:8332/rest/chaininfo.json in your browser.


You now have a full Bitcoin core node running on it's own. What's next ? Well I never blogged before, this is the first time I am outsourcing some of my work. I'm a passionnate enginner working on all kind of technologies. I've been dedicating half of my time to Bitcoin for the last 2 years already, so if this guide was usefull and want to go deeper , just let me know, depending on the feedback I get, i'll consider outsourcing more interesting work. For example next post could be about setting up an Electrum Server so you can safely use SPV wallets trusting your own fullnode.
Also I'm currently working on a trustless bitcoin payment processor called 8333, make sure you follow @_8333_ on twitter. I think I will release the project end of 2018. Ping me if interested.
The best way you can show support is via Bitcoin : 16FKGPiivpo3Z7FFPLdkoVRcV2ASBc7Ktu
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Linux Directory Structure - YouTube Linux Directory Structure  Linux File System  Explained ... -BITCOIN: Mining Basics German- IoTeX Blockchain Tutorial #1 - Installing a full node on Ubuntu Linux 18.04 4. Installing Bitcoin Core on Linux

Bitcoin Core is programmed to decide which block chain contains valid transactions. The users of Bitcoin Core only accept transactions for that block chain, making it the Bitcoin block chain that everyone else wants to use. For the latest developments related to Bitcoin Core, be sure to visit the project’s official website. Another approach is use the tree which is pretty handy and navigating directory trees based on its strong options. There are options for directory only, exclude empty directories, exclude names with pattern, include only names with pattern, etc. Check out man tree. Advantage: you can edit or review the list, or if you do a lot of scripting and create a batch of empty directories frequently Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin Core is the name of open source software which enables the use of this currency. I have a scenario where I want to create a folder structure like the one below. How can I write a for loop in such way that it would create this structure:. ABC [Parent folder] -> A1 [child folder] -> B1 [child folder] -> C1 [child folder] -> W1 [child folder] -> W2 [child folder] -> W3 [child folder] -> V1 [child folder] -> V2 [child folder] -> V3 [child folder] Start Bitcoin, now you will see all the files are created in the new data directory. Linux. By default Bitcoin will put its data here: ~/.bitcoin/ You need to do a "ls -a" to see directories that start with a dot. If that's not it, you can do a search like this: find / -name wallet.dat -print 2>/dev/null Mac. By default Bitcoin will put its ...

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Linux Directory Structure - YouTube

Unix & Linux: Home folder structure in Ubuntu 12.04.1? Helpful? Please support me on Patreon: With thanks & praise to G... sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bitcoin/bitcoin sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install bitcoin-qt bitcoind Linux terminal new stuff: clear, ll, cd, touch, echo, cat, shutdown How To Build/Run a Bitcoin Node on Linux - Duration: 14:29. Barnyard FFIO 2,111 views. ... Linux File System/Structure Explained! - Duration: 16:00. DorianDotSlash 1,527,212 views. Session 4: In this video I have explained complete linux directory structure or file system with complete explanation of each important directory. You will b... Today I'll show you how to how to get started mining Bitcoin and other cryptos super fast using MinerGate. It couldn't be easier! I'll be using MinerGate, an all-in-one tool for PC, Mac, and Linux ...