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What I currently use for privacy (after almost 2 years of long investing into it)
"Mineable + Private" It's mineable because it's a copy of 0xBitcoin. It is not private.
"Works with all Ethereum wallets and DEXs" True, it is an ERC20.
"Built on the Ethereum blockchain" True!
"Only 18.4 million tokens can be mined" True. This is one of the few modifications 0xMonero made to 0xBitcoin's contract.
"zk-SNARKs and 0xMixer" zk-SNARKs is a thing, but I don't know what it has to do with 0xMonero. I cannot find any indication that 0xMixer exists in any form.
"Scalable to 10,000tps" Nonsense, as far as I can tell. It'll be able to do whatever Ethereum is able to do.
"Mining" They instruct how to run mining software that was written for 0xBitcoin, as explained above.
"View Mining Statistics" This is a rip of a statistics page written for 0xBitcoin, as explained above.
"Exchanges" True! 0xMonero is on some exchanges.
"Wallets" True! 0xMonero is an ERC20, so it works with Ethereum wallets.
"Chainhop is an interoperability solution utilizing token bridges to other blockchains" I can't find any original 0xMonero code related to this. They link to Incognito, which is a separate project that AFAIK works with all ERC20s. They mention zk-SNARKs again, but it's not clear what it has to do with 0xMonero.
"0xMixer" I can't find any code. I couldn't find any the last time I was looking a month ago, either.
"0xLock" USB device of questionable utility developed by somebody else. Is it like a Ledger? I don't know.
"0xDEX" Not operational, no code can be found.
"Casino" From what I understand, some third party offers to sell gambling setups to Ethereum projects. I think it might be the case that anybody can buy this and have it set up for them in a few hours.
We’ve been working on a new product release for a year and want to hear your opinions on the product. Read on for product information and our vision for hardware wallets.
TL;DR Key features of Cobo Vault 2nd gen we are going to launch:
QR code air-gapped
Totally open source: Including firmware of the Secure Element
PSBT support and compatibility with other wallets
Fingerprint authorization to prevent password leak
Detachable battery to prevent battery corrosion and AAA support
Bitcoin-only firmware option
Hey bitcoin! I'm Lixin, a longtime Bitcoiner and creator of Cobo Vault. I come from a background in the electronic hardware industry, and experienced one of my products being featured in Apple Stores around the world. Although my interest goes back to 2010, my career intersected Bitcoin when Discus Fish (CEO of Cobo) invited me to help build Cobo’s hardware product line. Discus Fish is also the co-founder and CEO of f2pool, one of the largest mining pools currently in the world, and one of the earliest advocates of bitcoin in China. Back in 2018 we built our 1st generation Cobo Vault hardware wallet. As we had strong ties to miners in China, we naturally designed the 1st gen with them in mind. For those who are not familiar with the mining industry in China, mining farms are nearly always built in very isolated places where there is very cheap wind or water electricity. As the miners would take their storage into these isolated regions, we needed to maximize the durability of the device in addition to its security. We used aerospace aluminum rather than plastic and made it completely IP68 waterproof. We also gave it a hardshell metal case you can put it in, which is IK9 drop resistant and passes the American military durability test MIL-STD-810G. As for the electronic components inside the device, in order to maximize security, we made it as air-gapped as possible with QR codes. We see this as an important choice because USB cables and Bluetooth are not transparent and have a bigger attack surface. With QR codes you can see exactly what is going on and do not have to connect to a laptop which could have malware on it. QR code interaction needs a camera and a more complicated system which needs to be supported by high-level chips. All these come with a cost, and the 1st generation isn’t as accessible for average hodlers. For more details on the product, visit here. Things changed last year when I went to Bitcoin 2019 and talked to lots of hodlers in the States. I found that 95% of them don’t care about durability. I asked them if they were afraid of their home being flooded or burned down in a fire. The answer is - yes, they are afraid of these things, but see them as very low possibilities. Even if something were to happen, they said they would just buy another HW wallet for 100 dollars. From these conversations, it became more and more clear that the position for miners and hodlers is totally different. After coming back from that conference, our team began the almost one year journey of designing our 2nd gen product. It compromises on durability but doesn’t compromise on security. We designed the 2nd gen product all around a normal hodler’s needs. Obviously hodlers share some common needs with miners:
Hodlers want a more air-gapped solution so we took the legacy of QR code data transmission between your hardware wallet and the companion app from the 1st gen rather than using USB or Bluetooth.
A Secure Element is the strongest wall of protection from physical attacks. The 2nd gen will also have a Secure Element.
Some hodlers may touch their hardware wallet once every several months. With this time period, the battery could be a significant weak point. * The 2nd gen also continues the legacy of a detachable battery to prevent battery corrosion damage. In case the battery dies someday, 2nd gen will also support AAA batteries.
The 2nd gen also keeps the 4-inch touch screen. A touchscreen significantly increases ease of use - you don’t need to suffer from tiny buttons and little screens anymore. It also significantly lowers the possibility for human error, which is one of the biggest reasons that people lose their assets.
Continued other features like the self-destruct mechanism, which prevents side-channel attacks, and Web Authentication, which prevents supply chain attacks.
If you'd like to read more about these features, check out our blog posts here. Aside from these legacies from the 1st gen, our 2nd gen product will have some other big improvements:
With our 2nd gen we will open source the whole codebase when we launch in late Apr - including the firmware of the Secure Element. We are the first hardware wallet - also maybe the first electronic product with SE - to have open sourced the firmware of the SE. With the open source firmware code, you can see: Random number generation/master private key generation/key derivation/signing process all happens within the SE and your private keys never get out of the SE (maximizing protection against physical attacks).
At the Bitcoin 2019 conference half the hodlers I met told me they own multiple hardware wallets which they use on the go. So we added a fingerprint sensor you can use to authorize your transactions without typing in your password. No need to worry about surveillance cameras when using your hardware wallet in airports.
We will also support PSBT (BIP174) so that the device will be compatible with 3rd party wallets like Electrum or Wasabi Wallet in case people have need for using Cobo Vault with their own node or coinjoin. Also multisig between Cobo Vault and other wallets will be realized to prevent single point failure with a single brand of hardware wallet.
By sacrificing the durability of the device and its aluminum body/protective case and waterproof rating and lowering production costs, we successfully controlled the price under 200 USD. We wanted it to be at a price point most people in the community would see value in.
Personally, I am a bitcoin maximalist and also a big fan of the KISS principle. We will also release a BTC-only firmware version for people who want to minimize the codebase for less of an attack surface. Thank you for reading until here. More details like final price would be released later when we officially release the product in late Apr. Any suggestions or questions are welcome. Also you can find me @CryptoLixin or @CoboVault on Twitter! Ears are widely open!
My career isn’t always dangerous, but clients can be unpredictable
My name is Amy, and I’m what’s called a Computer Dominatrix. My clients are all long distance, we never interact face-to-face, and I have control over all of them. Some give me absolute control, some give me specific portions with boundaries. Some are married or dating, others are single. They all make use of my talents to give up control of at least part of their lives. When a new client contacts me, we exchange a few messages so I have some background about them, and I lay out what my services usually entail. I tell a few stories of what other clients have asked me to do for them, to help the new client select scenarios they would like to set up. Most of my clients have never had a Digital Dom before. So, giving them a few examples and options helps bolster their confidence. The usual set-up goes like this: my client installs some spyware on their computer that I control. It gives me the power to do things like lock their computer, see their screen, disable the keyboard, take over control of their computer, and get reports of what they’re doing on their computer. With this tool, I can perform my services. Some clients want me to watch their bank statements and shame them if they spend too much money or buy surprise things with their money as if I own the account. Other clients want me to monitor their porn usage and shame them for what they look up. Or, if I log in and catch them using porn, I should direct them to different porn of my choosing and force them to watch that instead. One even wanted me to try and break into his computer and install the spyware secretly. That was a fun client to work with. When it comes down to it, they just want to relinquish a little control over their lives. I understand where their desires come from, and knowing it helps me be a better Dom. Contrasting the fun times of my career, I’ve had a few mishaps and horrible things happen. I had one client sign up for my services. We messaged a few times to get to know one another before I agreed to accept him as a client. He was in his mid thirties, single, and wanted me to watch him look at porn and make random comments on the things he was watching. Really, not that abnormal for my choice of career. I had him sign an agreement that helps me avoid legal trouble if they try to report me for hacking (had this happen before), and we got started. I gave him the url where he could install my personal spyware, and he followed through. He only asked that I give him a little advance notice before I start watching, which I agreed to. Boundaries are important. I would check up on him twice a week, and send him a message before I did saying “I’m coming to check on you in ten minutes, you better be watching something good.” I would log in ten minutes later to the second and start either shaming him for his choice of videos or praise him for making the “right” choice. All of this was predetermined. Things were going fine with this client, and I balanced him with about 10 others. Being a Digital Dom makes it easy to spread your attention across many clients. Bonus if you can get clients from different time zones so they would log in at different times so you don’t have to multitask. I was about to check in with another client, when I mis-clicked in my software. See, my spyware (which I paid to be custom written after wishing for more features in commercial tools) lists my clients by most recently connected in one screen. When I add a new client, it can mess with the order of the page I am so used to mindlessly clicking through. I’ve since paid for that to get fixed and sort clients alphabetically, but this time I made a mistake. I clicked on this new client and connected to his computer. A gasp escaped my lips as I saw what he was looking at. I’ll leave that up to your imagination. It was some of the most fucked up porn I’ve ever seen. Involving victims of questionable age. And blood. If I could have slipped out of there, I would have. But this client requested a popup to appear whenever I connected so he would know I was there. That popup revealed my unexpected presence. Instead of panicking and trying to close the window, he calmly moved his mouse to the task bar and opened a text document. I was frozen while watching him type. I should have logged straight out, but I instead started to open a voice channel to tell him I was dropping him as a client. It was too much for me, and I decided to set that boundary early on in my career.
“Like what you see?”
He had typed into the word document, and the cursor blinked impatiently at me. I thought my voice would crack, so I took over the keyboard and typed back.
“I’m sorry, but I’m going to refund your money and no longer service you. Please uninstall this software and watch for your refund.”
He paused for a while, and I waited for him to respond once before I disconnected. He took too long, so I closed the window and took a deep breath while sitting back. I was feeling really disconcerted from what I’d watched. It wasn’t the first time a client had tried to show me illegal things during a session, but it always makes me sick when they do. I gave the reins over to another Digital Dom I have partnered with. We take over for each other if we feel ill or something. Just temporarily. I went to take a shower to wash out those images.
My computer started acting up more than a month later. So much had gone on since dropping that client that I didn’t connect the two at first. The computer would slow down for a few minutes, then resume its normal speed. I assumed it was because I hadn’t restarted in a while, so I restarted it. That seemed to fix the problem. When I had rebooted, the wifi slowed down considerably, enough for my roommate, Jess, to ask if I was downloading anything big. I had logged into the router to see if that also needed to be restarted when I noticed a device I didn’t recognize was connected to the wifi. I swallowed hard. RASPI was the name of the connected device. It had connected to the network three days ago. Some strangers' device was on our network. And they had to be nearby, at least within range of wifi. I immediately suspected that a neighbor had brute forced our wifi password and was now stealing internet. Before kicking the device off, I looked at the router’s traffic report. The device had a significant size of traffic in the last few days, but my computer used the most out of all of our devices. The device came in 5th place for most data used. It made sense that my computer was using so much bandwidth, but 75+ gigabytes in 3 days was excessive. My throat seized, and I immediately reached around to the back of my computer and unplugged the ethernet cable. Deep, primal panic set in. This was a very specific attack. It’s not the kind of hacking you can do en masse to install some ransomware or adware. Someone was targeting me or both of us. Someone who was willing to spend time brute forcing a wifi password and going after one specific machine on the network.
I called Lucas, the guy I hired to write my spyware for me, and filled him in on everything I knew. He knows perfectly well what his software is used for and isn’t weird about it. He agreed to take a look at my computer for a fee. So, trusting him as I have all my career, I installed a commercial remote desktop tool and let him connect. The moment I reconnected the computer to the internet, the router showed a spike in traffic again. I had him on a call while he worked, and I watched what he did carefully, trying my best to learn what he was doing so I could troubleshoot myself if this ever happened again. “Oh shit,” Lucas muttered. He had a traffic analyzer and computer process analyzer open on-screen. “Amy, I think you got hacked. Like, they’re downloading your hard drive!” “They’re what?!” I began to really panic. I had a lot of my clients information on this machine. Keys that let me log into their machines. Bitcoin Cash addresses and keys where I stored my fees. Now someone had them. They could easily start stealing and spending my thousands in accumulated fees and harass my clients. I’d lose a big chunk of my savings and my livelihood. Immediately, I took over the computer and shut Lucas out while I created new crypto addresses and started transferring money. The fees from transferring would make me lose a little money, but it was better than losing it all. I also started backing up the hard drive to several USB drives I had lying around. Just the important stuff like my files, personal photos, and client info. When I let Lucas back in, he got to work finding the process that was exfiltrating my data and shutting it down. He tracked down the executable that was running the show and downloaded it to his own computer before deleting it from mine. He promised to dissect it as best he could to figure out what it was doing. Before he did that, however, he started monitoring my system to make sure the virus had been truly cleared out. While watching my system, he gave me a task. “Walk around your apartment. Search everywhere and look for that rogue device. It’s been continuously connected for days, which means whoever is doing this is probably not camped out on the road. From the name, I’d guess it’s a Raspberry Pi -- a small computer about the size of a phone but two inches tall.” He sent me a picture of the type of device we were looking for. “They probably left it hidden somewhere, either connected to an outlet or with a large battery pack. Go and look for it,” he insisted. I got Jess to help me search the place top to bottom. Nothing. Not even outside in the bushes or on the back porch. We split up and went to our neighbors, asking if they’d seen anyone suspicious hanging around the building in the last week. No one on our floor had. I went upstairs and asked the same questions. Our upstairs neighbor said the only person he’d seen was a guy coming to update their satellite dish on the balcony. My throat seized up as I realized that could be them. I asked hesitantly if I could look at their dish. I didn’t know them, but briefly explained that someone had left a device lying around that was breaking into our wifi and that our next step was to call the police. They panicked at that, and let me check their balcony if I promised to keep them out of it if I called the cops. I agreed, knowing full well that they did drugs and would hate for the police to come around the apartment complex. There, on the balcony, was exactly what Lucas had told me to look for. A black box sat along the wall between the satellite and the wall the cable ran into. A power cord exited the box and connected to an outlet on the balcony. I cracked open the box with my fingers and found a circuit board inside, connected via usb to the outlet. The satellite cable passed straight through the box without connecting to anything. The box was a fake, made to look like it was doing something to the cable as it passed through. The circuit board looked exactly like the picture Lucas had shown me. There was our rogue device. I unplugged the device, fully aware that unplugging it would alert whoever was controlling it. They could assume it was disconnected accidentally, or they would think I had found it. Either way, I couldn’t just leave it. I thanked the neighbors and left with the whole box. Jess met me on the stairs, saying that Lucas had asked her to disconnect the internet on the computer and have me call him back. Jess stared in wide-eyed shock as I showed her what I’d found. The upstairs neighbors were well within range of our wifi for the device to connect. The job was only barely sloppy enough to detect. We were lucky I had found it at all.
On the phone Lucas sounded panicked. “They didn’t just copy your hard drive, they added files to it,” he squeaked. “Bad files. Bad pictures.” My jaw tightened, and I felt sick. I made the connection to the client I’d dropped. “Delete all your shit now,” Lucas was demanding. “You already backed up what you want, you need to destroy that hard drive. Smash it, burn it, bury it. Go get a new hard drive. Start as fresh as you can. I can help you get set back up if you want.” “I think I know what’ll happen,” I muttered. “He’ll call the police on me and tip them off that I have those… pictures. They’ll find it and arrest me for possession. Game over.” “He? You know who it is?” Lucas pressed. I told him about the client I’d dropped. “That’s why you need to torch your hard drives. Now. Both of you. Same with your phones. Who knows where else he’s been,” was Lucas’ advice. I won’t confirm or deny what I did with the hard drive or the device. If I destroyed it, it would technically be destruction of evidence. I ordered a new hard drive and reinstalled everything. I explained to my clients that I had lost internet connection for a couple of days, and didn’t end up losing any clients. I haven’t told the police everything. The last time I got involved with them, there was so much harassment from them about my career that I’d rather not have more negative interactions with them. It just isn’t worth it in this case. I kept my report short and simple: a guy I met online and dumped might try something and come to my house. I gave them the information the client gave me, but I suspect more and more that it was fake. Making a report will help if anything new happens. I’ve written about this before on other anonymous forums, specifically for other Doms. Because of those posts, a few journalists have reached out and are writing features based on me, my career, and these events. They should be published in the next few days. I’m just interested in sharing stories like this as publicly as possible, for awareness. Lucas explained that the Raspberry Pi was a tiny computer that had a cellular connection so the client could connect to it from anywhere in the world and try to break into my wifi. Once he had succeeded, the client had gone to work breaking into my computer and getting their malware installed. We still don’t know 100% how he did it. Lucas worked tirelessly to revise his software and remove vulnerabilities that could be used to trace me. We don’t know which vulnerabilities the client used, if any. We do know that there is one left, however. I know this because every once in a while, a client will show up in my software who I didn’t sign up. A new name and data every time. I don’t dare click it. I just know what will be waiting for me upon connection.
“Like what you see?”
Lucas hasn’t been able to track down how he’s injecting fake clients into the software. Until Lucas can fix it, all I can do is click carefully and not connect again by accident. I’m sure the client is using a modified version of my spyware, ready to do all kinds of damage the moment I connect. The guy is clearly an expert. Who knows how many other people he’s done something like this to. One thing is certain: he was prepared to conduct this attack. My career isn’t always dangerous, but the clients can be unpredictable.
I literally have tens of thousands of dollars in top-shelf hardware, looking to repurpose some before selling on eBay to build a NAS system, possibly a dedicated firewall device as well. o_O
Q1) What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.** A1) This will be a dedicated NAS system for my home network. As such, I'm looking to have it: - Host ##TB's of 720, 1080 & up resolution Movies and TV Shows I'm about to begin ripping from a MASSIVE DVD & Blueray collection I have. - My kids are big on Minecraft. I understand it's possible to host your own "worlds" (or whatever they call the maps you can build) on your own "server". I think it would be pretty neat to offer them (& their friends - if can be done 'safely/securely') their own partition on one of my NAS HDD's. - I also have accounts with a couple diff VPN companies... I understand it's possible (?) to sync said VPN's with a NAS, this might be a more relative topic on the next point/purpose... - I'd like to be able to remotely link to this NAS for when I travel overseas and want to stream at my temp location from my house/this NAS. ______________________ Q2) What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?** * A2) Here's where I make matters more complicated than most others would... I've been an advocate for Bitcoin and crypto-currencies in general since 2013. I invested in a small mining outfit back in 2014 (strictly Bitcoin/ASIC's). One of my buddies is the President of a large-scale mining operation (foreign and domestic) and he convinced me to dabble in the GPU mining-space. I made my first hardware purchase in Q4, 2017 and launched a small-scale GPU-Farm in my house since then. I had the rigs mining up until Q3 of 2018 (not cost-efficient to keep on, especially living in SoFlo) and since then, the hardware's been collecting dust (& pissing off my family members since they lost access to 3X rooms in the house - I won't let anyone go near my gear). One of my New Years Resolutions for 2019 was to clear out the house of all my mining equipment so that's all about to go up on eBay. So "budget" is relative to whatever I "MUST" spend if I can't repurpose any of the parts I already have on hand for this build... (Anyone having something I "need" and is looking to barter for one of the items I'll list later on in here, LMK). ______________________ Q3) When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.** A3) IMMEDIATELY! :) ______________________ Q4) What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc\)** A4) Well I had a half-assed idea approximately 1 year ago that it might be wise to build a bunch of 'gaming rigs' to sell on eBay with my intended repurposed mining hardware so I went on a shopping spree for like 6 months. That said; I've got a plethora of various other components that aren't even unboxed yet. 90% of the items I've purchased for this additional project were items that were marked down via MIR (mail-in-rebates) & what-not...
AFAIK, there are only 3X items I absolutely do not have which I 'MUST' find. Those would be - 1) Motherboard which accepts "ECC RAM". 2) CPU for said MOBO. 3) Said "ECC RAM".\*
______________________ Q5) Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?** A5) I'm located in Southwest Florida. No Microcenter's here. Best Buy is pretty much my only option although I am a member of Newegg, Amazon & Costco if that makes any difference? ______________________ Q6) If reusing any parts (including monitor(s)/keyboard/mouse/etc), what parts will you be reusing? Brands and models are appreciated.** A6) In an attempt to better clean up this Q&A, I'm going to list the items I have on-hand at the end of this questionnaire in-case passers-by feel like this might be a TLDR.* (Scroll to the bottom & you'll see what I mean). ______________________ Q7) Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?** A7) I don't think that's necessary for my intended purpose although - I'm not against it if that helps & FWIW, I'm pretty skilled @ this task already (it's not rocket science). ______________________ Q8) Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)** A8) As stated in A4; ECC RAM is non-negotiable... RAID seems like a logical application here as well. - This will predominantly be receiving commands from MacOS computers. I don't think that matters really but figured it couldn't hurt to let you guys know.\* - I'd also be quite fond of implementing "PFSENSE" (or something of that caliber) applied to this system so I could give my Netgear Nighthawks less stress in that arena, plus my limited understanding of PFSENSE is that it's ability to act as a firewall runs circles around anything that comes with consumer-grade Wi-Fi routers (like my Nighthawks). Just the same, I'm open to building a second rig just for the firewall.\* - Another desirable feature would be that it draws as little electricity from the wall as possible. (I'm EXTREMELY skilled in this arena. I have "Kill-A-Watts" to test/gauge on, as well as an intimate understanding of the differences between Silver, Gold, Platinum and Titanium rated PSU's. As well as having already measured each of the PSU's I have on-hand and taken note of the 'target TDP draw' ("Peak Power Efficiency Draw") each one offers when primed with X amount of GPU's when I used them for their original purpose.\* - Last, but not least, sound (as in noise created from the rig). I'd like to prop this device up on my entertainment center in the living room. I've (almost) all of the top-shelf consumer grade products one could dream of regarding fans and other thermal-related artifacts. - Almost forgot; this will be hosting to devices on the KODI platform (unless you guys have better alternative suggestions?) ______________________ Q9) Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?** A9) Definitely! Desired theme would be WHITE. If that doesn't work for whatever reason, black or gray would suffice. Regarding "Case Size". Nah, that's not too important although I don't foresee a mini-ITX build making sense if I'm going to be cramming double digit amounts of TB in the system, Internal HDD's sounds better than a bunch of externals plugged in all the USB ports. ______________________ Q10) Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?** A10) I don't know. If I do need a copy of Windows, I don't have one so that's something I'll have to consider I guess. I doubt that's a necessity though. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ **Extra info or particulars:*\* AND NOW TO THE FUN-STUFF... Here's a list of everything (PARTS PARTS PARTS) I have on-hand and ready to deploy into the wild &/or negotiate a trade/barter with: CASES - Corsair Carbide Series Air 540 Arctic White (Model# Crypto-Currency-9011048-WW) - (Probably my top pick for this build). Cooler Master HAF XB EVO (This is probably my top 1st or 2nd pick for this build, the thing is a monster!). Cooler Master Elite 130 - Mini ITX - Black Cooler Master MasterBox 5 MID-Tower - Black & White Raidmax Sigma-TWS - ATX - White MasterBox Lite 5 - ATX - Black w/ diff. Colored accent attachments (included with purchase) NZXT S340 Elite Matte White Steel/Tempered Glass Edition EVGA DG-76 Alpine White - Mid Tower w/ window EVGA DG-73 Black - Mid Tower w/ window (I have like 3 of these) ______________________ CPU's - ***7TH GEN OR BELOW INTEL's ("Code Name Class mentioned next to each one)**\* Pentium G4400 (Skylake @54W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC CAPABLE" Celeron G3930 (Kaby Lake @ 51W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC CAPABLE" :) i5 6402P (Skylake @65W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :( i5 6600k (Skylake @ 91W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :( i7 6700 (Skylake @ 65W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :( i7 7700k (Kaby Lake @ 95W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :( ***8TH GEN INTEL's **\* i3-8350K (Coffee Lake @91W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "ECC FRIENDLY" :) I5-8600K (Coffee Lake @95W TDP) - Intel ARK states is "NOT ECC CAPABLE" :( ***AMD RYZEN's **\* Ryzen 3 2200G Ryzen 5 1600 Ryzen 7 1700X ______________________ MOTHERBOARDS - ***7TH GEN AND BELOW INTEL BASED MOBO'S - **\* MSI Z170A-SLI ASUS PRIME Z270-A ASUS PRIME Z270-P ASUS PRIME Z270-K EVGA Z270 Stinger GIGABYTE GA-Z270XP-SLI MSI B150M ARCTIC MSI B250M MICRO ATX (PRO OPT. BOOST EDITION) ***8TH GEN INTEL BASED MOBO'S - **\* EVGA Z370 FTW GIGABYTE Z370XP SLI (Rev. 1.0) MSI Z370 SLI PLUS ***AMD RYZEN BASED MOBO'S - **\* ASUS ROG STRIX B350-F GAMING MSI B350 TOMAHAWK MSI X370 GAMING PRO ASROCK AB350M PRO4 ______________________ RAM - Way too many to list, nothing but 4 & 8GB DDR4 sticks and unfortunately, none are ECC so it's not even worth mentioning/listing these unless someone reading this is willing to barter. At which time I'd be obliged to send an itemized list or see if I have what they're/you're specifically looking for.\* ______________________ THERMAL APPLICATIONS/FANS - JUST FANS - BeQuiet - Pure Wings 2 (80mm) Pure Wings 2 (120mm) Pure Wings 2 (140mm) Silent Wings 3 PWM (120mm) NOCTUA - PoopBrown - NF-A20 PWM (200mm) Specifically for the BIG "CoolerMaster HAF XB EVO" Case GREY - NF-P12 Redux - 1700RPM (120mm) PWM Corsair - Air Series AF120LED (120mm) CPU COOLING SYSTEMS - NOCTUA - NT-HH 1.4ml Thermal Compound NH-D15 6 Heatpipe system (this thing is the tits) EVGA (Extremely crappy coding in the software here, I'm like 99.99% these will be problematic if I were to try and use in any OS outside of Windows, because they barely ever work in the intended Windows as it is). CLC 240 (240mm Water-cooled system CRYORIG - Cryorig C7 Cu (Low-Profile Copper Edition*) A few other oversized CPU cooling systems I forget off the top of my head but a CPU cooler is a CPU cooler after comparing to the previous 3 models I mentioned. I almost exclusively am using these amazing "Innovation Cooling Graphite Thermal Pads" as an alternative to thermal paste for my CPU's. They're not cheap but they literally last forever. NZXT - Sentry Mesh Fan Controller ______________________ POWER SUPPLIES (PSU's) - BeQuiet 550W Straight Power 11 (GOLD) EVGA - 750P2 (750W, Platinum) 850P2 (850W, Platinum) 750T2 (750W, TITANIUM - yeah baby, yeah) ROSEWILL - Quark 750W Platinum Quark 650W Platinum SEASONIC - Focus 750W Platinum ______________________ STORAGE - HGST Ultrastar 3TB - 64mb Cache - 7200RPM Sata III (3.5) 4X Samsung 860 EVO 500GB SSD's 2X Team Group L5 LITE 3D 2.5" SSD's 480GB 2X WD 10TB Essential EXT (I'm cool with shucking) + 6X various other external HDD's (from 4-8TB) - (Seagate, WD & G-Drives) ______________________ Other accessories worth mentioning - PCI-E to 4X USB hub-adapter (I have a dozen or so of these - might not be sufficient enough &/or needed but again, 'worth mentioning' in case I somehow ever run out of SATA & USB ports and have extra external USB HDD's. Although, I'm sure there would be better suited components if I get to that point that probably won't cost all that much). ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ Needless to say, I have at least 1X of everything mentioned above. In most all cases, I have multiples of these items but obviously won't be needing 2X CPU's, Cases, etc... Naturally, I have GPU's. Specifically; At least 1X of every. Single. NVIDIA GTX 1070 TI (Yes, I have every variation of the 1070 ti made by MSI, EVGA and Zotac. The only brand I don't have is the Gigabyte line. My partners have terrible experience with those so I didn't even bother. I'm clearly not going to be needing a GPU for this build but again, I'm cool with discussing the idea of a barter if anyone reading this is in the market for one. I also have some GTX 1080 TI's but those are already spoken for, sorry. It's my understanding that select CPU's I have on this list are ECC Friendly and AFAIK, only 1 of my MOBO's claims to be ECC Friendly (The ASROCK AB350M PRO4), but for the life of me, I can't find any corresponding forums that confirm this and/or direct me to a listing where I can buy compatible RAM. Just the same, if I go w/ the ASROCK MOBO, that means I'd be using one of the Ryzens. Those are DEF. power hungry little buggers. Not a deal-breaker, just hoping to find something a little more conservative in terms of TDP. In closing, I don't really need someone to hold my hand with the build part as much as figuring out which motherboard, CPU and RAM to get. Then I'm DEFINITELY going to need some guidance on what OS is best for my desired purpose. If building 2X Rigs makes sense, I'm totally open to that as well... Rig 1 = EPIC NAS SYSTEM Rig 2 = EPIC PFSENSE (or the like) DEDICATED FIREWALL Oh, I almost forgot... The current routers I'm using are... 1X Netgear Nighthawk 6900P (Modem + Router) 1X Netgear Nighthawk X6S (AC 4000 I believe - Router dedicated towards my personal devices - no IoT &/or Guests allowed on this one) 1X TP-Link Archer C5 (Router). Total overkill after implementing the Nighthawks but this old beast somehow has the best range, plus it has 2X USB ports so for now, it's dedicated towards my IoT devices. ---- I also have a few other Wi-Fi routers (Apple Airport Extreme & some inferior Netgear's but I can only allocate so many WiFi Routers to so many WiFi channels w/out pissing off my neighbors) On that note, I have managed to convince my neighbors to let me in their house/WiFi configuration so we all have our hardware locked on specific, non-competing frequencies/channels so everyone's happy. :) Please spare me the insults as I insulted myself throughout this entire venture. Part of why I did this was because when I was a kid, I used to fantasize about building a 'DREAM PC' but could never afford such. To compensate for this deficiency, I would actually print out the latest and greatest hardware components on a word document, print the lists up & tape to wall (for motivation). I was C++ certified at the age of 14 and built my first PC when I was 7. At the age of 15 I abandoned all hope in the sector and moved on to other aspirations. This entire ordeal was largely based off me finally fulfilling a childhood fantasy. On that note = mission accomplished. Now if I'm actually able to fulfill my desires on this post, I'm definitely going to feel less shitty about blowing so much money on all this stuff over the last couple years. TIA for assisting in any way possible. Gotta love the internets! THE END. :) EDIT/UPDATE (5 hours after OP) - My inbox is being inundated with various people asking for prices and other reasonable questions about my hardware being up for sale. Not to be redundant but rather to expound on my previous remarks about 'being interested in a bartetrade' with any of you here... I did say I was going to sell my gear on eBay in the near future, I also said I wanted to trade/barter for anything relative to helping me accomplish my OP's mission(s). I'm not desperate for the $$$ but I'm also not one of those people that likes to rip other people off. That said; I value my time and money invested in this hardware and I'm only willing to unload it all once I've established I have ZERO need for any of it here in my home first. Hence my writing this lengthy thread in an attempt to repurpose at least a grand or two I've already spent. One of the most commonly asked questions I anticipate receiving from interested bodies is going to be "How hard were you on your hardware?" Contrary to what anyone else would have probably done in my scenario which is say they were light on it whether they were or weren't, I documented my handling of the hardware, and have no problem sharing such documentation with verified, interested buyers (WHEN THE TIME COMES) to offer you guys peace of mind. I have photo's and video's of the venture from A-Z. I am also obliged to provide (redacted) electricity bill statements where you can correlate my photo's (power draw on each rig), and also accurately deduct the excess power my house consumed with our other household appliances. Even taking into consideration how much (more) I spent in electricity from keeping my house at a constant, cool 70-72F year-round (via my Nest thermostat). Even without the rigs, I keep my AC @ 70 when I'm home and for the last 1.5-2 years, I just so happened to spend 85% of my time here at my house. When I would travel, I'd keep it at 72 for my wife & kids. Additionally; I had each GPU 'custom' oveunderclocke'd (MSI Afterburner for all GPU's but the EVGA's).* I doubt everyone reading this is aware so this is for those that don't.... EVGA had the brilliant idea of implementing what they call "ICX technology" in their latest NVIDIA GTX GPU's. The short(est) explanation of this "feature" goes as follows: EVGA GPU's w/ "ICX 9 & above" have EXTRA HEAT/THERMAL SENSORS. Unlike every other GTX 1070 ti on the market, the one's with this feature actually have each of 2/2 on-board fans connected to individual thermal sensors. Which means - if you were to use the MSI Afterburner program on one of these EVGA's and create a custom fan curve for it, you'd only be able to get 1/2 of the fans to function the way intended. The other fan simply would not engage as the MSI Afterburner software wasn't designed/coded to recognize/ communicate with an added sensor (let alone sensor'S). This, in-turn, would likely result in whoever's using it the unintended way having a GPU defect on them within the first few months I'd imagine... Perhaps if they had the TDP power settings dumbed down as much as I did (60-63%), they might get a year or two out of it since it wouldn't run as near as hot, but I doubt any longer than that since cutting off 50% of the cooling system on one of these can't be ignored too long, surely capacitors would start to blow and who knows what else... (Warning = RANT) Another interesting side-note about the EVGA's and their "Precision-X" OveUnderclocking software is that it's designed to only recognize 4X GPU's on a single system. For miners, that's just not cool. My favorite builds had 8X and for the motherboards that weren't capable of maintaining stable sessions on 8, I set up with 6X. Only my EVGA Rigs had 3 or 4X GPU's dedicated to a single motherboard. Furthermore, and as stated in an earlier paragraph, (& this is just my opinion) = EVGA SOFTWARE SUCKS! Precision X wasn't friendly with every motherboard/CPU I threw at it and their extension software for the CLC Close-Loop-Cooling/ CPU water-coolers simply didn't work on anything, even integrating into their own Precision-X software. The amount of time it took me to finally find compatible matches with that stuff was beyond maddening. (END RANT). Which leads me to my other comments on the matter. That's what I had every single 1070 ti set at for TDP = 60-63%. Dropping the power load that much allowed me to bring down (on average) each 1070 ti to a constant 110-115W (mind you, this is only possible w/ "Titanium" rated PSU's, Platinum comes pretty damn close to the Titanium though) while mining Ethereum and was still able to maintain a bottom of 30 MH/s and a ceiling of 32 MH/s. Increasing the TDP to 80, 90, 100% or more only increased my hashrates (yields) negligibly, like 35-36 MH/s TOPS, which also meant each one was not only pulling 160-180W+ (Vs. the aforementioned 115'ish range), it also meant my rigs were creating a significantly greater amount of heat! Fortunately for the GPU's and my own personal habits, I live in South Florida where it's hot as balls typically, last winter was nothing like this one. Increasing my yields by 10-15% didn't justify increasing the heat production in my house by >30%, nor the added electricity costs from subjecting my AC handlers to that much of an extra work-load. For anyone reading this that doesn't know/understand what I'm talking about - after spending no less than 2-3 hours with each. and. every. one. I didn't play with the settings on just one and universally apply the settings to the rest. I found the 'prime' settings and documented them with a label-maker and notepad. Here's the math in a more transparent manner: *** I NEVER LET MY GPU's BREACH 61C, EVER. Only my 8X GPU rigs saw 60-61 & it was the ones I had in the center of the build (naturally). I have REALLY high power fans (used on BTC ASIC MINERS) that were sucking air from those GPU's which was the only way I was able to obtain such stellar results while mining with them. **\* Mining at "acceptable" heat temps (not acceptable to me, but most of the internet would disagree = 70C) and overclocking accordingly brings in X amount of yields per unit. = 'Tweaking' (underclocking) the GPU's to my parameters reduced my yield per unit from -10-15%, but it SAVED me well over 30-35% in direct electricity consumption, and an unknown amount of passive electricity consumption via creating approximately 20%+ less heat for my AC handler to combat. I say all this extra stuff not just for anyone interested in mining with their GPU's, but really to answer (in-depth) the apparent questions you people are asking me in PM's. Something else that should help justify my claims of being so conservative should be the fact I only have/used "Platinum and Titanium" rated PSU's. Heat production, power efficiency and longevity of the hardware were ALWAYS my top priority.* . I truly thought Crypto would continue to gain and/or recover and bounce back faster than it did. If this project had maintained positive income for 12 months+, I'd have expanded one of our sites to also cater to GPU mining on a gnarly scale. Once I have my NAS (& possibly 2nd rig for the firewall) successfully built, I'll be willing/able to entertain selling you guys some/all of the remaining hardware prior to launching on eBay. If there's something you're specifically looking for that I listed having, feel free to PM me with that/those specific item(s). Don't count on an immediate response but what you can count on is me honoring my word in offering whoever asks first right of refusal when the time comes for me to sell this stuff. Fortunately for me, PM's are time-stamped so that's how I'll gauge everyone's place in line. I hope this extra edit answers most of the questions you guys wanted to have answered and if not, sorry I guess. I'll do my best to bring light to anything I've missed out on after I realize whatever that error was/is. The only way anyone is getting first dibs on my hardware otherwise is if they either offer compelling insight into my original questions, or have something I need to trade w/. THE END (Round#2)
I recently introduced a friend to our humble, little subreddit and they quickly pointed out that the language spoken here did not appear to be English. I suppose we do toss around a fair amount of acronyms, memes, and slang. I put together a quick glossary of terms for them and figured I should post it here in case any other new ethtraders can benefit from it:
Exchange Websites where you can buy and sell crypto-currencies. Some popular exchanges in North America are: Coinbase GDAX Gemini Bittrex Poloniex Quadriga Kraken
Whale Someone that owns absurd amounts of crypto-currency.
limit order / limit buy / limit sell Orders placed by traders to buy or sell a crypto-currency when the price meets a certain amount. They can be thought of as 'for-sale' signs. These orders are what are bought and sold against when traders place market orders.
market order / market buy / market sell A simple purchase or sale on an exchange at the current price. Market buys purchase the cheapest ETH available on the order book, and market sells fill the most expensive buy order on the books.
margin trading The act of 'magnifying' the intensity of your trades by risking your existing coins. (NOTE: Very risky, only for experienced traders and only on certain exchanges even then)
going long A margin trade that profits if the price increases.
going short A margin trade that profits if the price decreases.
bullish An expectation that price is going to increase.
bearish An expectation that price is going to decrease.
ATH All-Time-High. We've gotten a lot of these the past couple months.
Altcoin Generally any crypto-currency other than Bitcoin or Ethereum. (Though some Bitcoin folks would probably still say Ethereum is an altcoin)
ETH The crypto-symbol for Ether. Kind of like stock market symbols. (i.e., the crypto equivalent of AMZN meaning Amazon stock)
Symbols of some other crypto-currencies that are regularly discussed/shilled around here: BTC - Bitcoin LTC - Litecoin ANS - Antshares SC - Siacoin XRP - Ripple ETC - Ethereum Classic FCT - Factom (described as a software license more than a coin, but can still be traded)
Tokens Refers to the 'currency' of projects built on the ethereum network that have raised money via issuing their own tokens. Some common tokens discussed on this sub: GNT - Golem REP - Augur BAT - Basic Attention Token ICN - Iconomi
ICO Initial Coin Offering, somewhat similar to an IPO in the non-crypto world. Startups issue their own token in exchange for ether. This is essentially crowdfunding on the ethereum platform.
Shilling / pumping Someone essentially advertising another crypto-currency. If a coin is promised to cure cancer or be the second coming of Jesus, it's being shilled.
stable coin A crypto-currency with extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market.
arbitrage Taking advantage of a difference in price of the same commodity on two different exchanges. Often mentioned when it comes to comparing ETH prices on Korean exchanges against US exchanges.
FOMO Fear Of Missing Out. The overwhelming sensation that you need to get on the train when the price of something starts to skyrocket.
FUD Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Baseless negativity spread intentionally by someone that wants the price of something to drop.
FUDster Someone that is spreading FUD.
Pump And Dump The recurring cycle of an altcoin getting a ton of attention, leading to a fast price increase, and then of course followed by a huge crash.
Bagholder Someone still holding an altcoin after a pump and dump crash. Can also just refer to someone holding a coin that is sinking in value with few future prospects.
Market Cap The total value held in a crypto-currency. It is calculated by multiplying the total supply of coins by the current price of an individual unit. This site shows a great run-down of each coin's market cap: http://coincap.io/
ROI Return on Investment. The percentage of how much money has been made compared to an initial investment. (i.e., 100% ROI means someone doubled their money).
TA Trend Analysis or Technical Analysis. Refers to the process of examining current charts in order to predict which way the market will move next.
Crypto-currency related, but not really specific to Ethereum:
blockchain The classification of technology that Ethereum falls into. Blockchains are distributed ledgers, secured by cryptography. They are essentially public databases that everyone can access and read, but the data can only be updated by the data owners. Instead of the data residing on a single centralized server, the data is copied across thousands and thousands of computers worldwide. More detailed information available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain
node A computer that possesses a copy of the blockchain and is working to maintain it.
mining The process of trying to 'solve' the next block. It requires obscene amounts of computer processing power to do effectively, but is rewarded with ether.
mining rig A computer especially designed for processing proof-of-work blockchains, like Ethereum. They often consist of multiple high-end graphic processors (GPUs) to maximize their processing power.
Fork A situation where a blockchain splits into two separate chains. Forks generally happen in the crypto-world when new 'governance rules' are built into the blockchain's code. Some more information available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain#Hard_forks
POW Proof-of-work. The current consensus algorithm used by Ethereum.
POS Proof-of-stake (not piece of shit). The proposed future consensus algorithm to be used by Ethereum. Instead of mining in its current form, people that own ETH will be able to 'lock up' their ether for a short amount of time in order to 'vote' and generate network consensus. The plan is that these stakeholders will be rewarded with ETH by doing so.
sharding A scaling solution for blockchains. Typically, every node in a blockchain network houses a complete copy of the blockchain. Sharding is a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
software wallet Storage for crypto-currency that exists purely as software files on a computer. Software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources. MyEtherWallet (MEW) is one of the popular. (more on MEW below)
hardware wallet A device that can securely store crypto-currency. Hardware wallets are often regarded as the most secure way to hold crypto-currency.
Ledger Nano S / Trezor Two of the most popular hardware wallet models.
cold storage The process of moving crypto-currency 'offline', as a way of safekeeping your crypto-currency from hacking. There are a variety of ways to do this, but some methods most commonly used: ---Printing out the QR code of a software wallet and storing it somewhere safe, such as a safety deposit box. ---Moving the files of a software wallet onto a USB drive and storing it somewhere safe. ---Using a hardware wallet.
Terms more specific to Ethereum
smart contract Code that is deployed onto the Ethereum blockchain, often directly interacting with how money flows. Not my quote, but: "A normal transaction allows you to send money from A to B. Smart contracts allow you to send money from A to B, on the condition that C happens."
Dapp Decentralized Application. This refers to an application that uses an Ethereum smart contract as it's back-end code.
The Flippening A potential future event wherein Ethereum's market cap surpasses Bitcoin's market cap, making Ethereum the most 'valuable' crypto-currency. This site shows the progress of the Flippening in real-time: http://www.flippening.watch/
gas A measurement of how much processing is required by the ethereum network to process a transaction. Simple transactions, like sending ether to another address, typically do not require much gas. More complex transactions, like deploying a smart contract, require more gas.
gas price The amount of ether to be spent for each gas unit on a transaction. The initiator of a transaction chooses and pays the gas price of the transaction. Transactions with higher gas prices are prioritized by the network.
Wei The smallest denomination of ether. 1 Ether = 1000000000000000000 Wei (1018)
Gwei Another denomination of ether. Gas prices are most often measured in Gwei. 1 Ether = 1000000000 Gwei. (109)
Raiden Network An upcoming protocol change to Ethereum that will enable high-speed transfers across the network. It is similar in some aspects to Bitcoin's planned Lightning Network. The name, I assume, comes from the Mortal Kombat character named Raiden that can shoot lightning. More reading available at: https://themerkle.com/what-is-the-raiden-network/
Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, Serenity The four planned stages of the Ethereum development roadmap. We are currently in the Homestead phase. The Metropolis update is likely to be available sometime in the next year.
MEW MyEtherWallet. A free site that can generate ethereum software wallets for you.
EEA Enterprise Ethereum Alliance. A coalition of startups and corporations trying to figure out the best way to use this dang thing.
DAO Decentralized Autonomous Organization. An investor-directed venture capital fund built on the Ethereum network that was hacked in June 2016. The hack stole about a third of the DAO's funds and led to Ethereum being hard-forked the following month. The DAO is often cited as one of Ethereum's biggest stumbles thus far.
I had like 3 friends ask me how to build a PC in the past week so I made this to help them.
(Reddit Edit: Help my improve the document with productive constructive comments on what I got wrong or messed up! Im only human lol Also a lot of this is supposed to be kinda humorous. I didn't think I had to say that but, hey, its the internet. I appreciate the positive and productive comments! ) Beginners basic guide to building your own PC as of early 2018 (EDIT: Sorry for being a MSI/Corsair Fanboy) Heres a collection of thoughts to consider when building your own personal PC As always Id personally use PCPartPicker.com to configure your parts and for further thoughts on compatibility. First off building a computer is 100% based around what you plan to use the computer for.
Here are a few uses and generic ideas of what to go for. Audio Editing: Lots of small tasks that need to be completed quickly without lag. - Fast Processor( >4GHZ) - Fast RAM (MHZ) -At least 16 gigs! - Fast Storage, SSD manditorily - M.2 or PCI for best performance. - Shitty Graphics card, graphics card there only to keep the cpu from doing other tasks when working. - Can be a few generations or years old. - Many screens for lots of plug in windows to be open Video Editing: Lots of large to render and files to read. - Multi core processor the more the merrier - SSD for fast read/write of large video files. - Insane graphics card, AMD graphics cards are debatibly better but the nvidia Quadro series are specific for video rendering. Gaming: No more than 4 cores intense graphics card - 92% of games are not coded for more than 4 cores so why spend the extra money for it. - SSD for quick load screens - Nvidia cards, 10 series, the higher the number the better. Titan cards for MAXIMUM OVERDRIVE! Coding: quick processor for lots of small tasks. Ergonomic peripherials? - Dear god please dont use a mechanical keyboard so that your coworkers dont kill you. Home office: Everything can be a few gens behind so you can get the best power per dollar spent. - Sorry that Gateway doesnt exist anymore. I guess try Dell...
Parts (Expensive Legos)
CPU (tells things to go places and outputs data) Basically three main routes to go for: Intel, AMD, or ASIC. Intel - Gaming, Data center, Hackintosh Pros: Cooler, Faster speed (GHZ), short small tasks faster Cons: $$$$, less cores AMD - Gaming, Personal Computing, Large task processing Pros: Lots of cores, better price per performance, faster processing of large tasks Cons: Hot chips, large chips?, compatibility issues with MacOS. ASIC - "Application-specific integrated circuit" Pros: Does the task that they are made to do insanely efficently, great for mining. Cons: Literally does nothing else. Holy hell these are expensive, very hot (fans will get loud) CPU Cooler (Im a big fan) Most come with an in box cooler that are ok but please buy aftermarket. In Box - the free shitty cooler that comes with the processor. Pros: Free. Cons: Ugly, makes chip run hot, hard to clean Air cooler - oldest type of cooler but new designs are highly efficent. Pros: Only cooler that has the possibility of being 100% quiet, most likely cheaper Cons: large, if cooler isnt large enough for the chips thermal output the fans will be loud. Liquid - Custom pipes are beautiful, AIO is easy to install and offers similare performance. Pros: Looks cool, great temperatures, "quiet" Cons: Water pump has possibility of being loud, possible spills Phase Change - uses the technology of refridgerators to cool the chip Pros: Can overclock until the chip breaks. (whats colder than cold? ICE COLD!) Cons: Loud (compressor noise), Large pipes, just why.... Motherboard (the convienacnce store of computer parts) Really just about what type of I/O you want. - MAKE SURE FORM FACTOR FITS YOUR CASE! (or vice versa) - Look for PCI lanes for expansion. - How many graphic cards do you have? - PCI based interfaces? - PCI SSD? - PCI DAC? - PCI WIFI? - USbs? Network? Audio? - How many lanes of RAM? - DOES IT FIT YOUR PROCESSOR!?! (really tho) - M.2? - How many sata interaces? Good Brands: MSI, ASUS, Gigabyte Bad Brands: AS(s)Rock, Dell Memory (Dory) - The more the merrier - No less than 8gb for a functional windows machine (16 gb to never have a problem) - Use all the lanes your computer has to offer! the more lanes to access the faster the data can travel! -Imagine drinking a milkshake. If the straw is wider you can drink more of the milkshake than a skinny straw. - Faster MHZ for faster data access but give minimal performance differances - Please get ram with heat spreadders unles youre building a server with high airflow. - Make sure the type (DDR3 or DDR4) of RAM matches what your processomotherboard call for. Good Brands: Corsair, G.Skill, Ballistix Storage (Grandpa that remembers everythign about how things used to be but takes forever to learn a new tasK) Speed or massive storage? slower is cheaper. Golden ratio of speed/storage/price is 250-500 gb SSD and a 1+ tb disk drive. *Max speeds listed are for a single drive not RAID* Hard Disk Drives (HDD) - Cheapest and slowest - read/write speeds of < 0.5gb/s - 7200+ RPM or GTFO - Higher Speed drives can access data faster. - Do not move while powered up. physical parts will break. - Larger Cahche = faster Read/Write Speeds Pros: Cheap, Holds massive amounts of data Cons: Slower than molasses in a frezer Reputible Brands: Seagate, WD Solid State Drives (SSD) - necessity for quick boots and fast load screens (can only be re-written to so many times) - SATA based (2.5 inch)- Read/Write speeds capped @ 6 gb/s Pros: Most economical, form factor fits with old computers, Cons: "Slow" compared to other ssd's (but stil 12 times faster than a HDD) - M.2 based - Read/Write speeds capped @ 10 gb/s Pros: Size of a sick of gum! High End but not too expensive to be out of reach. Cons: Expensive for any size over 500 gb - PCI based - Read/Write speeds capped @ 20 gb/s for PCI3, x4 Pros: HOLY BANDWIDTH BATMAN! Faster than that little creepy ghost thats always in the corner of you eye Cons: You might have to take out a loan to buy one. *takes up a x4 PCI Lane* Reputible Brands: Samsung! Corsair, Plextor, Intel, Kingston, Crucial Video Card (that one kid that has thick glasses and is really good at math) - A regular old PCI card that handles all of the video rendering and output for your computer. - ASIC PCI cards. - The PCBs and chips are patented by two main companies but the differances come from line up and varying manufacturer cooling devices. - The more memory the better -NVIDIA (Team Green) Great for gaming, has specific card series for intensive rendering. Lazy driver updates. - Gaming - 900 series - Cheap - Low performance - Can play any video game made befrore 2010 on max settings - 1000 (ten) series - Expensive (thanks bitcoin miners...) - Great for VR! - Video Rendering -Quadro Series - Gaming and Rendering - Titan X - Maxwell based chip same as 900 series cards - Titan XP - Pascal based chip same as 10 series cards -AMD (Team Red) Underdog does the same thing but slighly worse and cheaper. (except video rendering) - Gaming - RX 400 series - Cheap - Hot - RX 500 series - Cheap - Ok at VR and deacent gaming frame rates. - Not bad but not particularly great either. - Video Rendering - Fire Pro series - Gaming and Rendering - Vega series -Good luck finding one to buy lmao Case (Fancy clothing for your parts!) - Similar to human clothing you want it to do a few main things really well with compromises for each extreme. - Durability - Steel - Incredibly durable - Creates Farady cage for components - Heavy af - Magnets, just magnets.... - Rust over time - Aluminium - Light - East to bend for modding or "physical maintenance" - Less likely to rust - Huzzah for Farady cages! - Plastic - Just dont - no electrical Ground - no faraday cage - Light AF! - Breath (Airflow) - positive internal airflow! - larger fans push the same amount of air with less speed/noise - Looks - Window? - RGB - Cool Paint? - Fit all your parts - graphics card length/ clearacne - support for liquid cooling raiators? - How many spots for HDD/SSDs - Motherboard format - Cable management! Power Supply (FIGHT MILK) - Rule of thumb: BUy Powersupply that outputs 1.5 times the wattage that you need. - You can walk further than you can you can run. - The PSU can casually output 50-75% power for much longer than at 90-100% (without failure) - If you never demand enough wattage for it to get hot the fan doesnt have to turn on therefore making it quieter. - Modular means you can remove/replace the cables from the PSU. Reputible Brands: Corsair, EVGA Optical Drive (motorized cup holder) - You can download most things today so I'd suggest against it unless you really NEED to watch/write DVD's/CD's Operating System (software that makes everything work) Windows (Always Updates) - Compatible with just about everything - Easy to learn to code on! - POS inital browser - Likely to get virus's Linux (Penguins are cute) - Unique - takes less resources to run - Barebones - Incredibly personalizable! - Compatibility issues with just about everything MacOS (Linux but more annoying) - It is legal! - Great for art and your grandma that doenst know how to use computers! - User friendly - Compatibility issues with various hardware - Confusing/Limiting coding structure Peripherials (cables everywhere!) - Keyboard (higer Polling rate is better) - Mechanical (key is pressed at an exact stroke length every time - Mouse (Higher Polling rate is better) - more buttons = better? - DPI (Dots Per Inch) - In theory, if a mouse has 1600 DPI, then, if you move your mouse one inch (2.54 cm), the mouse cursor will move 1600 pixels - Higher DPI the faster your cursor is able to be moved. - Monitor - In theory the human eye cant see faster than 60 frames per second. - Keep in mind Pixel ratio! - 4k screen that is 22inches will have more pixels in a square inch than a 4k screen that is 28 inches. - Interface? - DVI (Analog) - thumbscrews..... - can do two monitors with one port! - support for 4k - VGA (Analog) - thumbscrews... - max resolution is 1440p - Display Port (digital) - nice button clip - supports 4k - HDMI (Digital) - 1.2 or higer supports 4k - DAC/Speakers/Headphones - Dont even get me started - Microphone - Dont get me started PT.2 Other (other) - UPS (uninterruptible power supply) Just a battery that allows your computer to have some time if the power ever goes out so that you have time to save your work. - Cable Organization materials! - Zipties - velcro - LED LIGHTING! - Manditory - Extra/Better fans - More pressure, less woosh - IFIXIT Pro Tech Toolkit - becasue who buys just one torx wrench. - Cute kitten mousepad - Yes, it has to be a cat. Dont argue
This is a very general entry into building computers and what you should buy/look for. If you have any questions/comments send me an e-mail! -Zac Holley-
ArcaneWharf and I have put this post together quickly so that we have a resource which we can point newcomers towards in order to answer their frequently answered questions. This should serve as more of an overview or quick-start guide which is a jumping off point for beginners, rather than a comprehensive or complete guide. This is a work-in-progress (i.e., definitely not perfect) which, as a community, we could expand and improve upon over time. If you have something to contribute (either to this or something more detailed), do comment in this thread or contact the mods (by sending a message to /BitcoinUK).
How can I learn more about bitcoin?
There are already some links in /BitcoinUK’s sidebar which should help you get started. If that’s not enough, check out:
We'd encourage you to at least understand the basics before making your first bitcoin purchase. There are tons of fantastic resources out there, so there’s no excuse for ignorance.
How do I buy bitcoin?
The answer depends on your priorities, as there tends to be a trade-off between more convenient, quicker options (which are more expensive) and less convenient, slower options (which are cheaper).
Purchasing with a credit or debit card on Coinbase is the best starting point for beginners, as it offers a great user experience. There's a quick guide here, but you probably won't need it as the sign-up and purchase process is quite intuitive. If you're having issues with verification on Coinbase (or it's just taking too long), then you might want to check out the options described in the ‘high fees, but faster’ section below. For subsequent purchases, check out the options described in the next two sections. Although the ‘no fees, but slower’ purchase route is popular and well recommended on /BitcoinUK, you shouldn’t automatically rule out the options described in the ‘high fees, but faster’ section.
No fees, but slower
The Revolut to GDAX route is frequently recommended in the /BitcoinUK community, as it eliminates fees and allows you to purchase bitcoin at the best possible price. Keep in mind that this route won’t work on weekends, as SEPA transfers only get pushed through during normal working hours (i.e., Monday AM till Friday PM). If you’re looking to purchase on weekends, then you’ll have to use the options described in the following section. You can finds details about this purchase route in this text guide and this video guide Summary of this process:
Sign up for Coinbase and Revolut.
Transfer GBP into your Revolut GBP account.
Activate your EUR wallet
Convert GBP to EUR in Revolut (FREE)
Send EUR to Coinbase (FREE)
Transfer EUR from Coinbase to GDAX (FREE)
Buy bitcoin on the BTC/EUR market.
High fees, but faster
If you’re willing to pay a premium (i.e., pay above market-rate), then you can buy bitcoin quickly and conveniently with GBP UK bank transfers and debit/credit card purchases. The premium charged by these options is usually under 5%, but can extend beyond that during times of high demand and (positive) price volatility. Unlike the Revolut to GDAX route, these options also allow you to complete purchases on weekends. Popular, frequently recommended options which are quick and convenient include:
Prices offered across these services vary day-to-day. For an overview of your options (and their relative competitiveness), you should check out BittyBot.co. This provides a full list of merchants and marketplaces available, ordered by price (cheapest first). You can also filter the output by payment method by typing it into the 'Search' box. Some users may prefer to take this faster route if they are convinced the price of bitcoin will increase during the time it would take for a transfer to process from Revolut to GDAX (using the method detailed in the previous section). This can pay off, but be cautious. The volatility of bitcoin makes it a double-edged sword and its price could just as easily go down (drastically) as it could go up.
What's the best way to sell bitcoin?
You can sell bitcoins back to the majority of sites which you buy them from. As before, there's a trade-off between the quicker and slower options. If you're looking to get a price which is closest to the market rate (and pay as few fees as possible), then you'll want to sell through an exchange like GDAX, exchanging your bitcoin for euros. GDAX is preferable when you're selling, as the price you'll get per bitcoin is higher. Essentially, just reverse the process detailed earlier in the FAQ (see this text guide or this video guide). Alternatively, check out this quick 3-minute video which walks you through the process. Summary of this process:
On GDAX, click ‘Withdraw Funds’ while in the EUBTC market
Transfer to your Coinbase Account (FREE)
Go to Coinbase > Accounts > Euro Wallet > Withdraw
On Revolut, go into your Euro wallet > Top Up > Bank Transfer > EUR
Note down the IBAN and BIC from Revolut, and enter them into Coinbase. Also include the amount you wish to withdraw.
Withdraw funds into Revolut (15p charge)
Once funds are in your Revolut EUR account, exchange from EUR to GBP (FREE)
Go to GBP wallet > send funds. Add yourself as a beneficiary.
Send the funds! (free)
If you sell bitcoin on Localbitcoins, Solidi, etc., you can get it sorted same-day (usually in less than an hour) with a transfer directly to your UK bank account in GBP. For that convenience, you'll usually get offered an exchange rate which is below the market-rate (usually up to 5%, but sometimes more). You are able to set your own sell orders on Localbitcoins or BitBargain (so you’ll be able to sell above market rate). However, we would not advise doing this as a newcomer. Of course, you could always just withdraw directly from an exchange to your UK bank account. Again, you'll lose a percentage of your funds (>1%) in the foreign exchange conversion (from EUR to GBP) which your bank processes. Depending on the exchange rate charged by your bank, you might be better off selling through services which allow you to cash out in GBP instead.
How should I store bitcoin?
To simplify quite a broad topic, you essentially have two options: hot or cold.
A hot wallet is any wallet that is connected to the internet. Typically this will be in the form of a desktop program or a mobile app. Hot wallets rank high in convenience, but are not suitable for large holdings. They are extremely vulnerable to malware and backdoors, with hackers having strong financial incentives to target desktop wallets. Nevertheless, they are perfectly reasonable for storing small amounts of cryptocurrency. Some popular options:
Electrum: Open source, available on desktop and mobile, but more complicated.
Breadwallet: Simple and beginner friendly mobile wallet.
Exodus: Supports multiple cryptocurrencies, great user interface, and is suitable for beginners.
A cold wallet is a wallet that does not connect to the internet, and therefore cannot be affected by malware. There are multiple forms of cold storage, but beginners should first consider a hardware wallet. A hardware wallet is a small, USB device where you can keep your cryptocurrency. They are secure since all of the information is stored on the device, so you could plug it in to a computer riddled with malware, and the malware would have no way of interacting with your wallet. These generally aren’t considered as secure as cold-storage wallets, but are much better than a hot-wallet. Usage just requires plugging the hardware wallet into your computer. One drawback of a hardware wallet is the cost (£70-100). Although not a mandatory purchase, it is strongly recommended that you purchase a hardware wallet if you've accumulated (or plan to accumulate) coins which are worth more than between £500 - £1000. Popular, well-recommended options include the:
Both are reputable and will serve you well. At the time of writing this, the Ledger is slightly cheaper and offers support for more cryptocurrencies. Unless you need the greater cryptocurrency support, the choice between them doesn’t really matter. For an overview of the Ledger Nano S (with security recommendations and a small FAQ) see this post. For a tutorial on setting it up, check out this video.
For a more information on different wallets, check out:
When setting up a wallet, it’s advisable to not record your mnemonic seed (which allows you to restore the wallet) on a digital device. Instead, it’s recommended to record it (clearly) on paper or card.
Why can't I just leave my bitcoin in the exchange?
When you buy bitcoin on an exchange (such as GDAX), the bitcoin is in your account but still belongs to the company who runs the exchange. Until you withdraw to your own wallet (as described above), the bitcoin is not truly yours. The bitcoin does not belong to you unless you own the private key. This is very important. Do not leave large amounts of cryptocurrency in an exchange. Even if you trust that the company won’t run off with your bitcoin, an exchange is much more prone to getting hacked. Think about it from the perspective of a hacker: would you rather target a million individual users who only own a small amount of bitcoin each? Or would you target one exchange that you know is holding unfathomably large amounts of bitcoin? Don’t believe me? If you're purchasing through Coinbase, you can withdraw cryptocurrencies through GDAX (same company) to your own wallet for free. Check out this how-to post for details.
Revolut is a mobile banking app that has recently announced support for cryptocurrencies. Note this section only refers to their service that allows you to buy cryptocurrencies within their application - not the process detailed above. While more mainstream adoption is good, Revolut’s in-app cryptocurrency exchange - in its current state - does not allow you to withdraw your cryptocurrency from their application. This has all the same issues as leaving in exchange, as you don’t have the cryptocurrency in your own wallet. Revolut’s in-app cryptocurrency exchange should be rolled out to all customers, if their FAQ is still accurate, by the 21st or 22nd December. Early access is available if you have premium or invite 3 friends who subsequently sign up and use their app. See here for more details.
How do UK taxes work with bitcoin?
Please note: This is not professional tax advice. Conduct your own research to verify this information and/or contact a professional tax advisor. If you sell bitcoins at a higher price than you bought them for, or exchange them for something else (e.g., another cryptocurrency, and goods or services), you would be liable to pay capital gains tax. However, you have a capital gains allowance of £11,300 per year. If you generate profits from the sale or exchange of bitcoins which fall below this threshold, then no tax would be due. Additionally, no tax is due until you sell or exchange it for something else. You may also be able to reduce your capital gains liability by gifting cryptocurrencies to your partner so that they can take advantage of their capital gains allowance too (more details in this thread). It appears unclear how you would be taxed in the UK in other circumstances: such as mining, working for cryptocurrency, or proof of stake rewards. As these rules develop, it’s advised to document everything you do with cryptocurrencies. When the taxman comes knocking, you’ll be grateful that you did. IndeedHowlandReed has kindly putting together a more detailed guide about Bitcoin and UK tax. You can find part 1 here and part 2 here. If you have any questions not answered by their guide, post them in this thread (or upvote existing questions). Useful Links:
Have a question that’s not here? Search /BitcoinUK first.
If you don’t find the answer to your question here, please search this subreddit before submitting a new post.
Have a contribution or suggestion?
As noted at the start, this is a WIP (i.e., it's definitely not perfect) which, as a community, we could expand and improve upon over time. If you have something to contribute (or even just a suggestion), do comment in this thread or contact the mods.
Coinbase Tutorial. A Definitive Guide for Newcomers.
Coinbase Tutorial. A Definitive Guide for Newcomers.
As cryptocurrencies become more abundant throughout our society, more information must be prevalent to educate the newcomers into the world of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. If you’re new to cryptocurrencies, then you’ve come to the right place as Coinbase is one of the simplest cryptocurrency trading platforms to get started on. Once you understand Coinbase, more advanced trading platforms such as Binance won’t seem as intimidating.
What is Coinbase?
Coinbase is a cryptocurrency trading platform which allows you to buy and sell five different cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Litecoin. Note that there are over thousands of different cryptocurrencies but these four are what Coinbase specializes in.
Making a Coinbase account
Creating a Coinbase account is very simple but there’s much more to it compared to something like creating a Reddit account. Be sure to have either your driver’s license, passport, or identification card at hand as you’ll be asked to provide this information via upload. Coinbase currently has a sign-up promotion going on. If you haven't signed up yet, sign up using this link and you'll receive $10 free in bitcoin (after you spend $100).
Why does Coinbase need to see my ID?
Coinbase needs to be able to verify your identify because they are a regulated financial service company operating in the US. As they state on their website:
As a regulated financial service company operating in the US we are periodically required to identify users on our platform. This ensures we remain in compliance with KYC/AML laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, something that is necessary for us to be able to continue to offer digital currency exchange services to our customers.
Once you’ve created your account, you’ll have to wait until you get approved before you’re allowed to start buying and trading on the platform. This can take upwards of 7 days till approval. Coinbase will also make two distinct small charges towards your bank account. You will need to find these charges and register them into Coinbase as a part of the approval process. The time in which it’ll take to get approved will vary person to person, just be patient and you eventually will get approved. In the mean-time I highly recommend taking some extra steps done to ensure the security, and longevity of your account.
Securing Your Coinbase Account
Two Factor Authentication
Upon signing into your Coinbase account, you’ll be sent a text message containing a code in which you will have to input allowing you to access your account. This is a security measure done to ensure it is specifically you trying to access your account, it’s important to note that a hacker could still compromise your account through a social engineering attack with what is known as a phone porting attack. This attack is done after obtaining your phone number and various other personal information, the hacker will then call up your phone carrier impersonating you, and then attempt to port your number over to a new device. Once a hacker has access to your text messages, they can then access your account with your SMS two-factor authentication code. If you’d like to see a real example of how this can play out, Cody Brown shares his example of how he lost $8k worth of bitcoin to this attack. Anyways, the best way to prevent this is through the use of an authenticator. The most common being Google Authenticator. I don’t want to get into too much technical details as to how authenticators work. Think of it as a digital key, stored on a device that changes every 30 seconds. In order to enable authenticator for Coinbase, go to Settings > Security and Enable Authenticator as shown here. After that a prompt will appear along with a QR code and a secret code (comprised of a random string of 16 letters & numbers). You will need to open up your Google Authenticator app and scan in your QR code. You will also need to write down your secret code and keep it in a safe place such as a safe and/or security deposit box. Once enabled, any time you wish to access your Coinbase account or make trades/transfers, you will need access to the 6-digit code provided by your authenticator. IMPORTANT: If you lose access to the device you’ve enacted authenticator on, you ABSOLUTELY WILL NOT be able to recover your account UNLESS you have that 16 digit secret code. This is a serious matter that should be taken with serious caution. It is important you take preventative security measures to ensure the security of your cryptocurrency. I highly recommend calling your bank and opening a security deposit box. This will mostly likely cost a yearly fee but the peace of mind alone is worth it IMO.
I’d like to briefly touch on phishing schemes. Phishing is the act of attempting to obtain personal information through the use of social engineering. Common phishing schemes/methods include: fraudulent e-mails in which the sender tries to impersonate an entity of authority (we’ve all received these sketchy e-mails before) and websites registered under the misspelling of a popular domain. In the world of crypto, it is essential to be attentive to schemes like these as it is much easier to fall victim than you may think. The anonymity of crypto alone makes it very appealing to hackers & scammers. You should always be on the lookout for fraudulent schemes. Some preventative actions you may want to consider taking:
Creating a bookmarks folder of all the popular crypto-related sites you visit
Creating email inbox rules to distinguish trusted entities.
As a safety precaution, ensure you have authenticator enabled throughout all your crypto-related accounts with the security keys kept in a safety deposit box.
Use a hardware wallet to store your cryptocurrency instead of keeping them on exchanges (I’ll touch more on this later)
Funding Your Coinbase Account
Congratulations, your Coinbase account got approved! You can now start funding your account… or so you thought. Upon your first cryptocurrency purchase with Coinbase, it is very likely your bank will automatically flag the purchase as fraudulent. If this happens to you (which it most likely will), you will need to call up your bank and let them know to let the purchase go through. Once you’ve taken care of that, buying and selling cryptocurrency is relatively self-explanatory. Just go to Buy/Sell in the menu and choose which currency you’d like to buy/sell as shown below. https://imgur.com/isNuaSJ
Coinbase has weekly limits as to how much cryptocurrency you may purchase. Your limits will not start out this high but increase with proper verification and the longer you have an account. Weekly Buy Limits
Bank Account: $25,000
Credit/Debit Card: $7,500
Weekly Sell Limits
Credit/Debit Card and bank account purchases are both instantaneous, however, for bank account purchases, it'll take 5-7 business days for you to see the charge in your account. For information see:
There’s three distinct fee’s you will encounter with Coinbase.
Conversion & Exchange Fees: These are fees you’ll encounter through the buying, selling or exchanging of crypto. A fee is charged when you convert fiat to crypto.
Transfer Fees: A fee is charged if you’re transferring crypto to a different wallet (IE: Crypto Binance). Note that if this wallet happens to be another Coinbase wallet, there is no fee.
Mining Fees: These's are inherent fee's you'll encounter with any sort of crypto transaction. Mining fee's will also change depending on which cryptocurrency you are purchasing. I don't want to delve to much into the technical aspects as to why this is (as it can get very technical). I'll have to save this for a later post.
Note that the Bitcoin network is notorious for insanely high fee's. Purchase and transaction fee's upwards of $50+ are not uncommon during periods of high network congestion. Using Bitcoin to purchase something like a cup of coffee is completely trivial, and as we advance forward into the space, it's becoming more apparent that Bitcoin's main use case will be that of a digital gold rather than a global payment network.
Lowest Possible Fee With Coinbase
If you're going to be making large crypto purchases through Coinbase, ideally you'd want to get the lowest fee possible. I have found that the best way to do this is by your linking a bank account rather then by purchasing through debit/credit card. See photo.
Funding via bank account: 1.46% fee
Funding via debit/credit card: 3.83% fee
See photo. As you can see, both allow instantaneous availability of funds. However, it'll take 5-7 business days for the bank account transfer charge to appear in your account. Note: The fee you receive will also depend on how large of an amount you are purchasing. Expect fees to be a bit higher for smaller purchasing amounts and lower for larger amounts.
It's important to know that fees will change depending on what country you're from and what cryptocurrency you happen to be purchasing. For more information on Coinbase fees I highly recommend visiting their fee disclosure page.
Avoiding Coinbase Transfer Fees Using GDAX
There is a bit of loophole to avoid Coinbase transfer fees. This is done through Coinbase’s advanced trading platform known as GDAX. It looks intimidating, but it’s a lot easier to use than they make it seem. Luckily, as Coinbase user, you technically already have a GDAX account. Simply follow the sign-up steps for GDAX, and you’ll find your information pre-populated. No need for long wait-times for verification etc. To mitigate Coinbase transfer fees, send your money: Coinbase - GDAX - wallet of your choice
Sending & Receiving Cryptocurrency
Sending and receiving crypto with Coinbase is super easy…
Go to Accounts in the menu, look for the currency you’d like to send, then click Send. A prompt will come up instructing you to put in the recipients address and the amount you’d like to send. Ethereum example.
Go to Accounts in the menu, look for the currency you’d like to receive, then click Receive. A QR code and random string of numbers will appear. That random string of letters & numbers is your wallet address. This string is what you’d give to someone if you were looking to receive crypto. Your wallet address is also crypto specific. This means that if you try to send Litecoin to your Bitcoin wallet address, the transaction will fail. Random LPT: If you’re ever needing to transfer a large amount of crypto to another wallet, I recommend sending a test amount which is basically just a small amount of crypto. If said small amount appears in the wallet, you know you have the correct address. If not… you may need to just wait a bit longer and hopefully it will appear, or you’ve sent it to the wrong wallet address.
Securing Your Cryptocurrency
There are many ways you could go about securing your cryptocurrency. I’m going to discuss two.
The Vault is a feature Coinbase offers free of charge to safeguard your funds by adding multiple layers of security. With the vault, there is a designated time frame for withdrawals. This helps to safeguard against hackers getting into and emptying your account. Additionally, you can have other people (or email addresses) needed to confirm these withdrawals for an added layer of security. Warning: The vault is a feature you should use if you are planning on holding your cryptocurrency for a longer period of time. It is not recommended if you are looking to turn quick profits through buying and selling often due to the 3 day waiting period for withdrawals.
Ledger Nano S
The Ledger Nano S is a cryptocurrency hardware wallet. It allows you to store your cryptocurrency in physical device akin to that of a USB drive. You would then ideally keep this in a safe at home. This is my personal preferred method of storing cryptocurrency because I don’t have to worry about hackers potentially gaining access to my cryptocurrency online, rather, that security falls into my own hand. I just have to make sure I don’t lose or damage my Ledger, and even if I managed to do that, there is a 16 word recovery phrase provided by the Ledger in the event of a lost, damaged, or stolen Ledger. As long as you have the recovery phrase, you can recover all your cryptocurrency. So after purchasing crypto through Coinbase, instead of leaving my digital goods on the exchange, I transfer it to cold storage (which is another word for hardware wallet IE: Ledger Nano S).
My Primary use of Coinbase
I primarily use Coinbase as an easy access point into the crypto world. Coinbase makes it very easy to purchase the largest of cryptocurrencys and once you have access to these, you can start purchasing more niche cryptocurrencies such as Ripple, EOS, IOTA, NEO, etc... You would do this through the use of much larger exchange such as Binance. You cannot directly convert fiat to crypto with Binance yet. So in order to fund a Binance account, you need to convert your fiat to crypto through an exchange that allows you to do so, (this is where Coinbase comes into play) send that crypto to your Binance account, then make a purchase. The way I go about doing this is:
1st I purchase Ethereum through Coinbase. I purchase Ethereum instead of Bitcoin, because as I mentioned before, Bitcoin is notorious for insanely mining and transaction fees. Ethereum has much lower fees.
2nd I send said Ethereum to my Binance account
3rd Once I receive that Ethereum on my Binance account, I make my niche cryptocurrency purchase through the Binance exchange.
I have a step-by-step guide that details out this process. You can view it here. PHEWWWW. That was a lot of words... Anyways, I hope this was beneficial to you crypto newbies out there. I plan on making more tutorials like this in the future :) If you have any questions, just leave them in the comments sections down below. I’m sure either myself or the community would be able to respond.
My attempt at an ELI5 for cryptocurrency to help my friends.
This is a long one so fair warning and no there is no tl;dr. I've only been at this for about 6 months and worked up this paper the other day for my friends who are interested but know very little about this. Hopefully whoever reads this can make in corrections as I am far from an expert. Blockchain Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ether are all blockchains. Blockchains are basically a spreadsheet (LEDGER) that is duplicated multiple times across a network and updated regularly simultaneously. There is no centralized version of this ledger. It is hosted simultaneously by thousands/millions of computers. These ledgers will update on their own, Bitcoin as an example automatically checks itself every 10 minutes. Each of these 10-minute increment of transactions (in bitcoins case transactions would be sending or receiving bitcoins from one person to another for goods or services) are called BLOCKS. For these blocks to be confirmed, accepted, and updated to the ledger nodes are required. Nodes (Mining/Forging) A node is a computer running the blockchain software on the network. The blockchain software will automatically download the entire ledger of all transactions since its inception. At regular intervals, the software will take the transactions of a block (data on the ledger) and convert them into a mathematical puzzle to be solved by randomly chosen nodes (MINING). Mining requires powerful processors (typically GPUs) and substantial quantities of energy to receive mined tokens profitably. When a specific number of nodes solve the puzzle with the same answer they are basically confirming that the data on the block is accurate as multiple independent nodes found the same answer. When confirmed, the block gets added to the previous blocks making a chain of blocks aka a blockchain. As an incentive to run your computer as a node you are rewarded with TOKENS. If a single person or group of people wanted to manipulate the ledger, the amount of machinery and electricity used to achieve the majority of miners thus allowing you to manipulate the ledger is so exponentially expensive that it serves no reasonable purpose. This is an example of a Proof of Work Blockchain System (computer solves puzzle and rewarded with tokens) Tokens Tokens are part of the core of the blockchain. They are an incentive to validate transactions and create blocks. They gain intrinsic value based on the blockchain they are associated with. Some blockchains grant token holder’s different abilities. With Bitcoin, tokens are needed to pay for transaction fees. Others allow voting rights on how certain blockchain functions are managed. There is a limited amount of Bitcoin that will ever be released to nodes (21 million expected to be all be released by 2033) which also keep inflation from being a problem. Blockchains can create their platform with whatever number of tokens they would like and release them or create means to mine them as they see fit. Essentially, as with any other fiat money (currency that a government has declared to be legal tender NOT backed by a physical commodity), as adoption and trust increases the value of the token will increase. If most people accept Bitcoin for services and stores accept Bitcoin for goods than it is as good as the next currency. Wallets Whether you mine for tokens, are paid in tokens for goods or services or purchase tokens from a person or currency exchange you need a place to store them securely and a way to send and receive them. Cryptocurrency Wallets don’t store currency, they hold your public and private keys that interface with the blockchain so you can access your balance, send money and manage your funds. The public key allows others to send money to the public key only. A wallet that is "offline" (see Hardware or Paper below) cannot access funds or send money unless it is accessed with another form of wallet, either desktop, online, or mobile. 1) Desktop Wallet - Installed on your computer and are only accessible from that SINGLE computer. Very secure but if someone hacks your computer you are exposed. 2) Online Wallet - Run remotely (cloud based) and are far more convenient to access but make them more vulnerable as they are controlled by a third party and are also vulnerable to hacking attacks. Exchange wallets are online wallets but you are not in control of the private key. View it as a wallet that is lended to you so you can trade. The wallet is technically not yours. 3) Mobile - Ran on an app and are useful as they can be used anywhere including retail stores 4) Hardware - Private keys are stored on a tangible device like a USB drive. They can make transactions online but they are stored offline. Compatible with web interfaces and support many but not all currencies. To use, plug into a computer, enter a pin, send currency and confirm. Safest form of storage. 5) Paper - Basically a physical printout of your private and public keys. It is not stored online anywhere and the only way transactions can happen is if you transfer money with the help of an Online wallet. Example of a Public Key = 1A684DbsHQKPVCWgaUsYdF4uQGwTiA9BFT Example of a Private Key = E9873D79C6D87DC0FB6A5778633389F4453213303DA61F20BD67FC233AA33262 Most wallets provide a Recovery Mnemonic Passcode that is a series of words (typically 12 to 24 words) in a specific order. If you lose your login information for your wallet you can supply the mnemonic passcode and retrieve your lost login information. If you lose your login information and your mnemonic passcode your wallet will be inaccessible and your tokens are lost to you. The above basically describes a first generation Blockchain Cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin. It is used basically as currency with no centralized entity regulating the release of additional currency and keeping the ledger of where the money is going secure and extremely safe from manipulation. Second Generation Blockchain The second generation blockchains sprung out of this environment with something more valuable. Utilizing the blockchain system to allow applications to be ran on top of a decentralized secure system. Instead of just recording transactions, contracts could be transmitted the same way. More complex transactions (SMART CONTRACTS) allow for things such as: - Funds to be spent only when a required percentage of people agree - Manage agreements between users (such as insurance) - Provide utility to other contracts - Store information about an application such as domain registration information or membership records This basically can allow applications to be ran on top of the blockchain system. This can cut out the middleman for many real-world applications (mortgages, banking, communications, security confirmations etc.) Proof of Work/Proof of Stake As I mentioned earlier, Proof of Work (PoW) requires nodes to solve a mathematical puzzle which is rewarded with tokens. Proof of Stake (PoS) is different, the tokens with proof of stake systems are pre-mined meaning they are all created when the blockchain system is created. Blocks are not verified by the typical method. The block validator uses the blockchain software to stake their tokens and are chosen based on specific factors depending on how many tokens the person holds and for how long. Depending on how many tokens they hold will restrict the quantity of blocks they can validate. If they own more they can validate more often but all validators will be chosen randomly keeping the rewards fairly distributed (unlike PoW which typically reward the first completed.) The blockchain still requires a mathematical puzzle to be solved but it is much easier than PoW requiring far less time and energy. If the blockchain has premined all of their tokens then new tokens cannot be mined for rewards in PoS. The reward for staking your tokens to be a validator is a portion of the transaction fee that is charged as part of normal transactions on the blockchain. That is why PoS miners are called forgers. If manipulation is attempted than their stake can be taken from their wallet adding more motivation to prevent data manipulation. Fork Some cryptocurrencies may need to update or upgrade the coding of their blockchain software. When this happens usually a fork occurs. This basically means the cryptocurrency splits into two separate cryptocurrencies. Because the nature of blockchain technology, they are decentralized and autonomous so the older version cannot be deleted or removed. If people choose to continue using the old version they can. For mining/forging purposes the nodes will need to choose which they will mine/forge and download the blockchain software on their computer to proceed. When the fork occurs, anyone holding tokens in the original currency will be given the same number of tokens in the forked currency. (When Bitcoin forked to Bitcoin Cash, anyone holding x amount of Bitcoin would receive a new wallet for Bitcoin Cash also containing x amount of Bitcoin Cash.) This is called a Hard Fork and all previous transactions are made invalid. There are also Soft Forks, in this case it is backwards compatible and all previous transactions are valid. This can result in two currencies but in most cases, it doesn’t as it is usually accepted by most miners/forgers because it is backwards compatible. Exchanges Online currency exchanges allow you to buy, sell or exchange fiat money (USD, EUR, etc) with digital currencies or in most cases digital currencies for other digital currencies. There are a large variety of different exchanges that are operated in multiple countries but there are around a dozen that the majority of cryptocurrency trading volume are present on. Not all cryptocurrencies will be listed on all exchanges, some have specific prerequisites to be listed on their exchange and there may be fees associated as well. Once your account is set up you will have a list of all available cryptocurrencies to trade. Each currency will have an associated online wallet with the public key address allowing you to send that specific currency to that wallet. (Many exchanges are having delayed or canceled identity verification, currency transfers and lack sufficient customer support due to the influx of new traders) Examples of top exchanges: 1) Coinbase (trades fiat) 2) GDAX (trades fiat) 3) Gemini (trades fiat) 4) Changelly (trades fiat) 5) Bittrex 6) Binance 7) HitBTC 8) EtherDelta 9) Bitfinex 10) Kraken 11) Bithumb 12) Bitstamp 13) Poloniex 14) OKEx Sending/Receiving Tokens All wallets have the ability to send digital currency to other wallets. The function is relatively easy, make sure the currency you are sending is going to the appropriate wallet for that currency. Ethereum tokens cannot be sent to a Bitcoin wallet for example. (The tokens aren’t actually moving location; the list of transactions/ownership is what is stored in the wallet). Triple check the wallet private key you are sending the tokens to. If you type the wrong address the tokens will be lost in nearly all incidents. Some mobile wallets allow you to scan a QR code that will automatically enter the public key rather than copying/pasting or typing out the public key. Taxes As of January 1, 2018 it appears that taxing on digital currency has changed. Every trade between any digital currencies (Bitcoin to Ether, Ether to Litecoin etc) will be a taxable transaction. If you hold the currency for longer than one year than you will pay capital gain tax when it is traded or sold (15%-20%) and if you sell or trade in less than a year you will have to add the profit to your taxable income to adjust your tax bracket. Altcoins Altcoins are basically any coin that is not Bitcoin. Most cryptocurrencies do not have a native blockchain (their own independent dedicated blockchain). Bitcoin, Ether, Ripple, Waves, NXT, Cardano all have their own native blockchain. Many other cryptocurrencies run on other cryptocurrency’s blockchains. Litecoin runs on Bitcoins blockchain, hundreds run on the Ethereum blockchain. These currencies act as smart contracts running on the adopted blockchain. DApps (Decentralized Applications) For a blockchain application to be considered a DApp it must be 1) Open source, code available to all 2) Decentralized, uses blockchain cryptographic tech 3) Incentive, must have tokens to fuel itself 4) Algorithm/Protocol, generates tokens and has a built-in consensus mechanism (mining/forging.) There are 3 types of DApps, each basically piggybacks off the platform of the previous Type 1 – Have their own blockchain (like bitcoin) Type 2 – Use the blockchain of Type 1 DApps Type 3 – Use the protocol of Type 2 DApps ICO (Initial Coin Offering) Much like an IPO (Initial Public Offering) that offers stock in a private company to the public, an ICO raises money for new Cryptocurrency ventures. Typically, a minimum investment is required in the form of a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin or Ether and the investor is given tokens of the cryptocurrency at a reduced cost. Due to the fact that ICO’s are so new, government agencies have not begun regulating these ventures making them extremely risky as anyone with a competent coder can create and market a cryptocurrency that can be used to swindle investors who aren’t cautious. The US government no longer allows its citizens to participate in ICO’s and if you are using a computer with an IP address located in the United States, ICO’s websites will not allow you to invest. Research 1) Whitepapers – Each cryptocurrency will have their own dedicated websites and most will have a whitepaper that has a description of what their cryptocurrency is designed to do. 2) Roadmaps – Also on each cryptocurrency’s website, they tend to have a roadmap or timeline as to when they are planning to complete certain milestones be it added features to the blockchain or wallet or any other important events. 3) Coinmarketcap.com – List of every available cryptocurrency, the exchanges they trade on, market cap, trade volume, available tokens, newly created tokens etc. 4) Reddit.com (cryptocurrency subreddit) – Subreddits focused on cryptocurrency as well as specific subreddits focused on individual cryptocurrencies. Be cautious as many people on these sites are uninformed and/or are trying to manipulate the market by fooling others to buy or sell based on fraudulent information. 5) Bitcointalk.org – Forums specific to individual cryptocurrencies. There is a lot of self-marketing (bounties) on this site. Take what they say with a grain of salt 6) TwitteFacebook (Social Media) – Many times news from team members or the cryptocurrency’s social media page will break news before it is listed on any of the above-mentioned outlets. Find out who is working for the cryptocurrency you are interested in and start following the team’s social media. Don’t forget to look at their linkedin accounts if available, previous employment and behavioral history to confirm they are competent. 7) Github - Code from projects can be uploaded here and reviewed for issues and revisions. Common Terms/Slang Shilling – covert advertising, personally endorsing a token so as to manipulate the price to either recoup a loss or increase gains on a token the individual owns. FUD – Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt; another method to manipulate the price of a token the person owns by making others second guess their investment decision on a specific token. FOMO – Fear Of Missing Out; buying a token (usually after the price has already increased) hoping they haven’t missed the majority of a price increase. Shitcoin – A cryptocurrency that has become worthless overtime or a scam operation. To the Moon – Massive increase in a token’s price. I'm sure there are probably revisions to be done on this as I am still getting my head around all of the concepts. Any help to this would be appreciated.
Amir Taaki - Breaking Bitcoin presentation (transcript)
Below I transcribed Amir's talk from Breaking Bitcoin (see previous post here, start of presentation (youtube): here). Excuse the errors (will fix if you point me to them). What was most interesting for me:
Amir tries to influence the world (on global scale) by introducing high tech projects that will help ordinary people - he is collecting hackers to work on projects (CTRL-F "academy")
one of those projects is using Bitcoin in local economies (in combination with supplementary systems (CTRL-F "vouchers")
interesting background - Skinner vs Mumford; open source software movement
Amir: Thank you for having me here. I believe that ideas play an important role in shaping human history. What I want to talk about is how technology has been shaped by key ideas. In particular how certain mechanical ideas of human society got mixed up with with politics and technology. What I want to talk about is the free technology movement. It was a movement that showed great potential promise to liberate humanity. At the heart of it was a idea that technology offered a new way to construct a radially different kind of society that never before was possible in history, this movement was influenced by the visions of early scientists who believed in the power of computer technology not just to serve large industry and military but everybody to have access to this new power. Influenced of by the 60s counterculture, this movement went on to develop the first personal computers. But that's not the end of the story because this radical vision mutated into the idea of self-regulating systems which see human beings as object managed by computer algorithms. In this vision, the value of human ideas to transform the world was diminished into a strange kind of consensus where everybody satisfies their personal desires. We now find ourselves in a strange static dreamworld while dark forces are returning to threaten to penetrate our reality and all of the dreams of the techno-utopiasts play the role in creating this fake virtual world in which human beings driven by desires, devoid of all sense of higher purpose become slaves to algorithms and vast computer intelligences. What is interesting about this story is the significance it has for Bitcoin. A project which is created for the purpose of creating a decentralized peer-to-peer money that cannot be controlled by governments and central banks but which now finds itself monopolized by large mining cartels. A lack of vision to guide the project forwards and increasing irrelevance in a world facing a global breakup of power. Lastly I want to explain my project to revitalize the free technology movement to formulate a wider vision to restore back the potential of the technology to transform human society and train the next generation of revolutionary hackers dedicated to the cause of using the technology to support the cause of freedom. My aim here is to find sponsors, find the place for establishing our hacker Academy, to find partner organisations to develop new technology projects with and to find people ready to dedicate themselves in advancing the free technology movement. People ready to be at the forefront of writing history. At the heart of this story lies a conflict between two men in 1968. One of them is good B.F. Skinner, the other is good Lewis Mumford. It was one moment when two ideas about how technology could be used to advance human society first XXX ((unintelligible)) to take hold. There's a documentary from this time made in mid-60s called "Towards tomorrow". And in this documentary, it described two possible future visions for human society. In a society where old forms of authority were declining, what would be the way that we could organize masses of human beings in a future society. One of these visions for this society was a world managed by an elite group of technocrats, a specialized elite who managed a large population of passive human beings who constantly needed to be monitored and managed to be able to to keep them happy. B.F. Skinner described a new way of controlling and ordering people. He posed the question in this age of mass democracy and individualism the old forms of coercion was simply not possible and he put forth the idea of using reward. And he described an experiment where you have a cage with a pigeon inside and the pigeon can be trained to peck symbols, buttons, and depending on which symbol they peck, they get a pellet of food. In this way, by giving the pigeons the right reward for the correct behavior, they train the pigeon as a mechanical object. He then took this farther and he went to a mental hospital in San Bernardino in California and in the mental hospital, what they did is they gave the mental patients small reward every time they did a good behavior. With this reward, when it was a lunch time or a dinner time, the patients could sit at a nicer table. So, inside the mental hospital, they created a new ordered hierarchy from a system of reward in which people don't feel controlled but feel empowered. Skinner describes this model as a model for the future of humanity. What's really interesting about this video by Skinner is it there's something very eerily similar to what we see today in which there is a technocratic elite that has interest in politics only in managing human society to keep us happy to keep everything stable and to keep themselves rich. A lot of this was powered in the mid-80s with the fake consumer credit to reward us as a form of social management - much like the experiment with the hospital, the mental hospital. Lewis Mumford put forward an alternative vision for a society. In this video I'm going to show you - he first criticises Skinner and then he puts forward an alternative vision where everybody in the society is a participant. Everybody is an active human being deciding their destiny.
There were many forms the computer could have taken. In 1800s, the computer was proposed by Babbage. And popularized by Ada Lovelace. It was seen as a tool that would have huge social uses and that should be in the hands of many people, but when the computer was first developed during WWII - for cracking German codes for the military and for guiding ballistic missiles - computers became a very large centralized machine. By the 80s, communities of hackers started to emerge which started to be fascinated with these huge machines - which at the time you had to get the time slice, to get the appointment to get to get some time to use the machine - they started to get jobs near these computing devices, because they wanted to know how these machines could work. They started to build their own computers in their garages, in their houses and universities - and that was the birth of the personal computers, the reason why we now have laptops and telephones. What happened was: a lot of big companies started to come along and they started to invest a lot of capital. All of the hacker community - who up until that point had never seen money before in their life - to throw themselves at, at the proprietary industry. And whereas before the culture that had created this personal computers, this liberatory technology, really believed in power to use the technology to improve the humanity for the better, who really believed in free technology, in sharing techniques and code with each other - instead became siloed off. But there was one guy - Richard Stallman - he was just a guy - he found this ethically wrong. If enough people got together, we could give a challenge against the proprietary industry. He made that as a proposal to the community - that it doesn't have to be this way, if we together put our energies we can build our own operating system. A lot of people at that time thought that he was crazy or that his ideas weren't feasible. This is early video of Richard Stallman.
So, in 1991, the cryptography was classified as ammunitions and Philip Zimmermann wrote the first freely available encryption software for anybody to use and he uploaded it to the Internet. The American government arrested him and he was facing a decade in prison. What Philip Zimmerman did was to print the source code of PGP - of this encryption software - which he sold internationally, which is something that in America is protected under the First Amendment. And the American government was realizing that they couldn't continue with the case, they dropped the case. And since that time, because of the action of Philip Zimmermann, software became classified as a form of speech. And cryptography became widely available. It's now reason why cryptography is available everywhere. Also, in early 90s, Stallman has started to piece together his operating system. And by now a community a community of people has emerged around him. It was the birth of Linux - a really important piece of technology. Not just in the free technology world, but in general, in hi-tech space it place a very key role. And that was a rise of the whole bunch of movements: free software movement, hacker movement, crypto-anarchist movement. Movements were invigorated with creating a lot of new ideas and a lot of new concepts about how we could use the technology to shape the world around us. These were collective movements driven by the shared sense of purpose. Towards the end of the 90s (the baby boomer generation), the western society became overly optimistic. Something the Jean Baudrillard called 'the dead of society' and 'obsession with desert-like forms / with the simulacrum'. Stallman free software movement failed to capitalize on institutionalizing his movement. And what happen was what emerged was the open source movement. It was a movement that said: making this technology is not a question of freedom/ethics, it's simply when you have access to source code of a program it's more efficient, it's cheaper, it makes more quality code. I don't think that's true, but that was their argument. One of the main spokesmen was Eric Raymond who released a book called 'A cathedral and a bazaar'. In that book, Eric Raymond has described the open source development philosophy as open bazaar where everybody, dozens or hundreds of people, a wide number of people all collaborated in a horizontal manner. He coined an idea that given enough eyes all bugs are shallow. When we have a piece of source code, if there are enough people - all contributing a small amount of time and looking at the source code - then if there is a bug, that bug will be found. The idea that given a huge amount of people with a small amount of contribution of each, that we can develop projects and advance technology. Then what happened was the biggest event in the modern western history - which was the collapse of the twin towers, the twin idols of capitalism, perfect in a reflections, reaching into the skyline of New York - which realized our deepest most hidden desires to see the destruction of this passive lifeless world. And what it represented was the return of the real (of the) dark forces - that we ignored - back to penetrate into our reality. In early 2000s we saw a lot of optimism and momentum for change. We saw the Arab spring, we saw The occupy, we saw the orange revolutions. In the technology world, we saw a lot of advances, there was a huge amount of optimism for Linux on the desktop. Every year the people were saying: this is going be the year of the desktop. Everybody was waiting for that sudden single breakthrough. One of the major developments in technology world was the confrontation that took place between Hollywood and a Manhattan programmer called Bram Cohen. ((...)) He developed BitTorrent. The concept started with sites like Napster or Kazaa - that were centralized services that were shut down by authorities. Cohen came up with a concept: if enough people downloading files and seeding them at the same time - then the more people that download the file the more that file will become widely distributed in the network. So, that file will become shared in a self-regulating network. It was a big success and the movie studios didn't know what to do about this, they were completely powerless in face of this technology. The idea of creating a functional self-regulating system outside of power proved itself and it's something wildly popular among technologists. The next major development is the shutdown of the Pirate bay which led to the development of the Pirate party that at one point had double digits in elections and even entered into the EU parliament. There is huge momentum behind it. Wikipedia was also developed - the idea that given thousands and thousands of people all contributing small edits, one line at time, could build this huge knowledge resource . Around this movements started to emerge the new priests of this internet-centric decentralization technology - people like Yochai Benkler, academics who would go to conferences and sell this ideology to people. But something strange started to emerge. Wikipedia released statistics about edits on Wikipedia. We found that it was a small group of dedicated people that wrote the majority of Wikipedia, people who really believed in the project and spent all their time writing the majority of the articles on the website. When we started to look closer at these decentralized systems, what we observed was small groups of leaders surrounded by a wider community. In BitTorent, it wasn't that everybody was seeding in the network. Most people, after they downloaded, didn't continue to run the software. In fact, it was a small group of users, who wanted to challenge Hollywood and promote BitTorrent, who would leave their software running seeding torrents. In open source, we observed that there were small groups of dedicated developers in a project surrounded by wider community. And in fact, what Stallman has done was not just to write Linux and put that in the community, but he had written articles, he had written manifestos, he had put forward a vision and an ideology that pulled together enough people and drove this movement of hackers forwards. So what drove these projects for freedom was not a new model or a new technique. It was a vision that pulled together enough people to realize an idea. To understand why Occupy and Arab Spring and orange revolutions and the Pirate Party and a lot of these movements had a huge of amount of will and movement - fail, it's really instructive to understand what happened to Egypt. In Egypt, huge amounts of youths started to mobilize through Facebook and they started to go to this center in Cairo to front the military dictatorship. Huge amount of people died in that struggle. And after they threw out ((?)) the military dictatorship, the youth then sat down and said: "Okay, now what we are gonna do? What's next?". So they started to discuss. And into that, came a group of people, with a vision, with an ideology, that was well organized and able to pull together enough strands of the society behind them. But they could put their vision into power. And that was the Muslim Brotherhood. And then the same youth hood - that kicked out the military dictatorship - came back to the square to ask the military dictatorship to come back and rescue them from the Islamists. At the same time, Satoshi developed Bitcoin. I remember on Satoshi's early website he described it as a peer-to-peer form of money that cannot be controlled by central banks and governments. And it's something that attracted libertarians, cryptographers and hackers. Bitcoin is kind of a technology - free technology project - that was a little late to the party. Interestingly, it finds itself in the same place as the movements that preceded it. The fundamental problem with Bitcoin is not a problem of missing this or that technology, it's a problem of a lack of vision, a lack of how this technology is - And it's not just about Bitcoin - it's something to do with the wider technology movement. We have to understand the global situation now. Humanity is facing a future with a huge amount of suffering. We are facing the threats from terrorism, from immigration. There's the rise of new ideological movements - ISIS just went and took a city in southern Philippines for more than a month - which is right next to Indonesia, the biggest Muslim country in the world. And in Europe the new right movement is getting very strong, organizing training camps, becoming well-organized, getting into political power and well-funded. This is the reality of our situation now. We have to think about how this technologies that we make -, where do they situate themselves in the wider global context. In Rojava, there is also a really important movement with the ideology of democratic confederalism which is the way forward from anarchism. And offers a really good analysis of what is the current society and what is the crisis that we're facing. And how, in that place, revolutionaries from all over the world are going to learning the methodology and ideology of this movement. It's a new emerging movement outside of any one person's control, but new forces can be harnessed. What we have to understand is that anarchist movement and the hacker movement is something deeply connected. The problem with anarchism is that it failed in it's potential to advance humanity forward, it's simply an ideology that no longer is able to work. What we have in Rojava is a libertarian revolution of 5 million people. What is democratic confederalism? It's an ideological movement that opposes the state as a mechanical worldview and sees the nature as something that is divine, that seeks to restore the balance back between internal+subjective and external+material world. The freedom comes from reaching our destiny as human beings, not simply through pleasure seeking. (Liberalism is the destruction of the free society.) And the better humanity it's not simply a happier humanity but stronger freer humanity. The crisis in the West not simply an economic crisis, but social crisis - we're facing a deep cultural issue. All of the ideas in hacker movement - such as BitLaw, digital governance, cryptographic economy, decentralized organization, new economic models, new technical tools - unless we are able to take all of these concepts and put them into a plan, with a sense of direction, that we can put these into practice - then it's something that's going to be lost. Now, what's presenting itself is a massive opportunity for hackers to put their ideas into practice. So, right now we are building a hacker team. There's 3 tasks we have to do: study of all the ideas and concepts in technology. From this study we have to develop a long- term plan. And thirdly, we have to devote ourselves to build the technical base of this new emerging democratic confederalism movement, we have to create revolutionary hackers dedicated to the course. If we don't, then all of the technology we are making is outside of the society, it's a toy, and what is relevant in this world is not making new products to fill the spaces in the environment around us, but using technology to shape politics that influence the world around us. This revolution in North Syria or Rojava is the biggest opportunity in the entire history of modernity. Through this we can give direction to the hacker movement. One of our main projects is a Bitcoin project. We have a nation of 5 million people and - and - and there is a financial situation where they're under financial embargo, they use - , they don't have the financial infrastructure so they use paper money and Syrian Lira is inflating massively. Because there's embargo so you can't send money in and out. Also there is a project to create decentralized economy and there's a lot of real concrete uses for Bitcoin. And also the ideology of the revolutionary nation is in line with the vision and values of the Bitcoin. When we decide to look at deploying Bitcoin, what we realize is that Bitcoin is not ready and there's a lot of new things that need to be developed in Bitcoin, they should make it so it's able to be deployed on a scale of 5 million people. We are assembling a project to deploy Bitcoin as the national currency of Rojava. We want to create new products in practical use on a large scale. Products that solve real problems and serve the cause of freedom. Towards this goal, we're assembling a team of 20 hackers dedicated for two years. We're looking to establish links with companies and sponsors to make this happen. The first step is to establish a hacker's academy in Greece - to train groups of revolutionary self-sufficient hackers that we're going to deploy on projects. Our needs now: partners, sponsors, space, support. Our first plan is to setup exchange shops and localized wallets in Bitcoin where people come buy vouchers and use Bitcoin to create a local Bitcoin market. We have to create brochures, lots of information. Once this system gets bigger, then we also need to think of bigger financial infrastructure - so one of the things is paper wallets. At the moment, 100 thousands paper wallet cost $6000. Unfortunately the counterfeiting measures on the paper wallets aren't very well made. There needs to be a lot research done. There is a small USB device called ESP 12 which can be programmed with micro Python and C and it has on-board Wi-Fi, plus you can fit modules for radio. Through that you can create a large scale payments networks with cheap consumer devices that cost fie dollars each for people to transact bitcoins. There is also a big market for Bitcoin because sending money between Rojava and Istanbul currently costs 5 %. Later, we also can create plastic card system where we print cards and also establish payments network using radio systems. There needs to be a lot of development and investigations in Lightning Networks and other technologies. This is why I [want to ((?))] have a laboratory - if I take a group of people there - I can create all kinds of technology projects and a lot of concepts we've been theorizing for a long time. We can see that it works practically. There is also the project of the Pirates to create liquid democracy - there is a system of local councils in every neighborhood which - , a lot of these digital platforms that have been developed for many years - we can deploy them. There was also the economy being based on cooperatives - all of the ideas about economic management, about collective management of resources about using cryptography and currencies to manage cooperatives. These all things we can deploy - but what it's going to take is a group of people who's doing this research, who's going deep - not only in terms of developing new concepts - but looking back into the literature about what were - , what is the history of the movement, where we situated it and also what are the concepts and how we can apply them towards our goal. I'm gonna to finish my talk on that. Does anybody have questions?
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