What happened in November 2013 that caused the value of a ...
What happened in November 2013 that caused the value of a ...
'Bitcoin is a classic mania': Value of cryptocurrency ...
Bitcoin History – Price since 2009 to 2019, BTC Charts ...
2013: Year Of The Bitcoin - Forbes
Bitcoin worth almost as much as gold - CNNMoney
Bitcoin 11 Years - Achievements, Lies, and Bullshit Claims So Far - Tooootally NOT a SCAM !!!!
That's right folks, it's that time again for the annual review of how Bitcoin is going: all of those claims, predictions, promises .... how many have turned out to be true, and how many are completely bogus ??? Please post / link this on Bitcoin (I am banned there for speaking the truth, so I cannot do it) ... because it'a way past time those poor clueless mushrooms were exposed to the truth. Anyway, without further ado, I give you the Bitcoin's Achievements, Lies, and Bullshit Claims So Far ... . Bitcoin Achievements so far:
It has spawned a cesspool of scams (2000+ shit coin scams, plus 100's of other scams, frauds, cons).
Many 1,000's of hacks, thefts, losses.
Illegal Use Cases: illegal drugs, illegal weapons, tax fraud, money laundering, sex trafficking, child pornography, hit men / murder-for-hire, ransomware, blackmail, extortion, and various other kinds of fraud and illicit activity.
Legal Use Cases: Steam Games, Reddit, Expedia, Stripe, Starbucks, 1000's of merchants, cryptocurrency conferences, Ummm ????? The few merchants who "accept Bitcoin" immediately convert it into FIAT after the sale, or require you to sell your coins to BitPay or Coinbase for real money, and will then take that money. Some of the few who actually accept bitcoin haven't seen a customer who needed to pay with bitcoin for the last six months, and their cashiers no longer know how to handle that.
Contributing significantly to Global Warming.
Wastes vasts amounts of electricity on useless, do nothing work.
Exponentially raises electricity prices when big miners move into regions where electricity was cheap.
It’s the first "currency" that is not self-sustainable. It operates at a net loss, and requires continuous outside capital to replace the capital removed by miners to pay their costs. It’s literally a "black hole currency."
It created a new way for people living too far from Vegas to gamble all their life savings away.
Spawned "blockchain technology", a powerful technique that lets incompetent programmers who know almost nothing about databases, finance, programming, or blockchain scam millions out of gullible VC investors, banks, and governments.
Increased China's foreign trade balance by a couple billion dollars per year.
Helped the FBI and other law enforcement agents easily track down hundreds of drug traffickers and drug users.
Wasted thousands if not millions of man-hours of government employees and legislators, in mostly fruitless attempts to understand, legitimize, and regulate the "phenomenon", and to investigate and prosecute its scams.
Rekindled the hopes of anarcho-capitalists and libertarians for a global economic collapse, that would finally bring forth their Mad Max "utopia".
Added another character to Unicode (no, no, not the "poo" 💩 character ... that was my first guess as well 🤣)
Provides an easy way for malware and ransomware criminals to ply their trade and extort hospitals, schools, local councils, businesses, utilities, as well as the general population.
~~Bitcoin is "striking fear into the hearts of bankers, precisely because Bitcoin eliminates the need for banks. ~~, Mark Yusko, billionaire investor and Founder of Morgan Creek Capital, https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
"A bitcoin miner in every device and in every hand."
"All the indicators are pointing to a huge year and bigger than anything we have seen before."
"Bitcoin is communism and democracy working hand in hand."
"Bitcoin is freedom, and we will soon be free."
"Bitcoin isn't calculated risk, you're right. It's downright and painfully obvious that it will consume global finance."
"Bitcoin most disruptive technology of last 500 years"
"Bitcoin: So easy, your grandma can use it!"
"Creating a 4th Branch of Government - Bitcoin"
"Future generations will cry laughing reading all the negativity and insanity vomited by these permabears."
"Future us will thank us."
"Give Bitcoin two years"
"HODLING is more like being a dutiful guardian of the most powerful economic force this planet has ever seen and getting to have a say about how that force is unleashed."
"Cut out the middleman"
"full control of your own assets"
"reduction in wealth gap"
"cannot print money out of thin air"
"Why that matters? Because blockchain not only cheaper for them, it'll be cheaper for you and everyone as well."
"If you are in this to get rich in Fiat then no. But if you are in this to protect your wealth once the current monetary system collapse then you are protected and you'll be the new rich."
"Theres the 1% and then theres the 99%. You want to be with the rest thats fine. Being different and brave is far more rewarding. No matter your background or education."
"NO COINERS will believe anything they are fed by fake news and paid media."
"I know that feeling (like people looking at you as in seeing a celebrity and then asking things they don't believe until their impressed)."
"I literally walk round everyday looking at other people wondering why they even bother to live if they don't have Bitcoin in their lives."
"I think bitcoin may very well be the best form of money we’ve ever seen in the history of civilization."
"I think Bitcoin will do for mankind what the sun did for life on earth."
"I think the constant scams and illegal activities only show the viability of bitcoin."
"I think we're sitting on the verge of exponential interest in the currency."
"I'm not using hyperbole when I say Satoshi found the elusive key to World Peace."
"If Jesus ever comes back you know he's gonna be using Bitcoin"
"If this idea was implemented with The Blockchain™, it would be completely flawless! Flawless I tell you!"
"If you're the minimum wage guy type, now is a great time to skip food and go full ramadan in order to buy bitcoin instead."
"In a world slipping more and more into chaos and uncertainty, Bitcoin seems to me like the last solid rock defeating all the attacks."
"In this moment, I am euphoric. Not because of any filthy statist's blessing, but because I am enlightened by own intelligence."
"Is Bitcoin at this point, with all the potential that opens up, the most undervalued asset ever?"
"It won't be long until bitcoin is an everyday household term."
"It's the USD that is volatile. Bitcoin is the real neutral currency."
"Just like the early Internet!"
"Just like the Trojan Horse of old, Bitcoin will reveal its full power and nature"
"Ladies if your man doesnt have some bitcoin then he cant handle anything and has no danger sex appeal. He isnt edgy"
"let me be the first to say if you dont have bitcoin you are a pussy and cant really purchase anything worldwide. You have no global reach"
"My conclusion is that I see this a a very good thing for bitcoin and for users"
"No one would do such a thing; it'd be against their self interests."
"Ooh lala, good job on bashing Bitcoin. How to disrespect a great innovation."
"Realistically I think Bitcoin will replace the dollar in the next 10-15 years."
"Seperation of money and state -> states become obsolete -> world peace."
"Some striking similarities between Bitcoin and God"
"THANK YOU. Better for this child to be strangled in its crib as a true weapon for crypto-anarchists than for it to be wielded by toxic individuals who distort the technology and surrender it to government and corporate powers."
"The Blockchain is more encompassing than the internet and is the next phase in human evolution. To avoid its significance is complete ignorance."
"The bull run should begin any day now."
"The free market doesn't permit fraud and theft."
"The free market will clear away the bad actors."
"The only regulation we need is the blockchain."
"We are not your slaves! We are free bodies who will swallow you and puke you out in disgust. Welcome to liberty land or as that genius called it: Bitcoin."
"We do not need the bankers for Satoshi is our saviour!"
"We have never seen something so perfect"
"We must bring freedom and crypto to the masses, to the common man who does not know how to fight for himself."
"We verified that against the blockchain."
"we will see a Rennaisnce over the next few decades, all thanks to Bitcoin."
"Well, since 2006, there has been a infinite% increase in price, so..."
"What doesn't kill cryptocurrency makes it stronger."
"When Bitcoin awake in normally people (real people) ... you will have this result : No War. No Tax. No QE. No Bank."
"When I see news that the price of bitcoin has tanked (and thus the market, more or less) I actually, for-real, have the gut reaction "oh that’s cool, I’ll be buying cheap this week". I never knew I could be so rational."
"Where is your sense of adventure? Bitcoin is the future. Set aside your fears and leave easier at the doorstep."
"Yes Bitcoin will cause the greatest redistribution of wealth this planet has ever seen. FACT from the future."
"You are the true Bitcoin pioneers and with your help we have imprinted Bitcoin in the Canadian conscience."
"You ever try LSD? Perhaps it would help you break free from the box of state-formed thinking you have limited yourself..."
"Your phone or refrigerator might be on the blockchain one day."
The banks can print money whenever they way, out of thin air, so why can't crypto do the same ???
Central Banks can print money whenever they way, out of thin air, without any consequences or accounting, so why can't crypto do the same ???
It's impossible to hide illegal, unsavory material on the blockchain
It's impossible to hide child pornography on the blockchain
All Bitccoins are the same, 100% identical, one Bitcoin cannot be distinguished from any other Bitcoin.
The price of Bitcoin can only go up because of scarcity / 21 million coin limit. (Bitcoin is open source, anyone can create thir own copy, and there are more than 2,000+ Bitcoin copies / clones out there already).
immune to government regulation
"a world-changing technology"
"a long-term store of value, like gold or silver"
"To Complex to Be Audited."
"Old Auditing rules do not apply to Blockchain."
"Old Auditing rules do not apply to Cryptocurrency."
Bitcoin now at $16,600.00. Those of you in the old school who believe this is a bubble simply have not understood the new mathematics of the Blockchain, or you did not cared enough to try. Bubbles are mathematically impossible in this new paradigm. So are corrections and all else", John McAfee, 7 Dec 2017 @ 5:09 PM,https://mobile.twitter.com/officialmcafee/status/938938539282190337
2013-11-27: ""What is a Citadel?" you might wonder. Well, by the time Bitcoin became worth 1,000 dollar [27-Nov-2013], services began to emerge for the "Bitcoin rich" to protect themselves as well as their wealth. It started with expensive safes, then began to include bodyguards, and today, "earlies" (our term for early adapters), as well as those rich whose wealth survived the "transition" live in isolated gated cities called Citadels, where most work is automated. Most such Citadels are born out of the fortification used to protect places where Bitcoin mining machines are located. The company known as ASICminer to you is known to me as a city where Mr. Friedman rules as a king.", u/Luka_Magnotta, aka time traveler from the future, 31-Aug-2013, https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/1lfobc/i_am_a_timetraveler_from_the_future_here_to_beg/
2018-12: Listen up you giggling cunts... who wants some?...you? you want some?...huh? Do ya? Here's the deal you fuckin Nerds - Butts are gonna be at30 grandor more by next Christmas  - If they aren't I will publicly administer an electronic dick sucking to every shill on this site and disappear forever - Until then, no more bans or shadow bans - Do we have a deal? If Butts are over 50 grand me and Lammy get to be mods. Deal? Your ole pal - "Skully"u/10GDeathBoner, 3-Feb-2018 https://www.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/7ut1ut/listen_up_you_giggling_cunts_who_wants_someyou/
2018-12: "Bitcoin could be at$40,000by the end of 2018, it really easily could", Mike Novogratz, a former Goldman Sachs Group Inc. partner, ex-hedge fund manager of the Fortress Investment Group and a longstanding advocate of cryptocurrency, 21-Sep-2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lC1anDg2KU
2018-12: Bitcoin will end 2018 at the price point of$50,000, Ran Neuner, host of CNBC’s show Cryptotrader and the 28th most influential Blockchain insider according to Richtopia,https://www.bitcoinprice.com/predictions/
Top-60 bitcoin/crypto quotes of the last decade, because reading them makes you feel good, and it feels good to feel good. Also one trading tip
First, number one trading tip for the next decade (in my opinion): XXA/XLM trading pair, price is 5.20 XLM (0.3588 USD). Ixinium XXA is so undervalued right now. Target profit +300% for this year. Backet by precious metals. Precious metals 100% insured by Lloyd's of London. Target price levels for this year because of precious metals base value: 12.0 XLM (0.83 USD, +130.6%) 18.8 XLM (1.30 USD, +261.5%) 23.2 XLM (1.60 USD, +345.9%) Price up since Coinmarketcap listing 7 days ago: 47.26% XXA/XLM trading pair on Stellarport and StellarX exchanges with zero trading fee. It's not too late to become an Ixinium whale :) My favorite bitcoin/crypto quotes, last ten years:
Came into Bitcoin for the short-term dollar gains. Stayed in Bitcoin for the long-term bitcoin gains.
Fiat addicts you to spending. Bitcoin addicts you to saving.
There are 1,900x more dollars in existence today than there was less than a hundred years ago. Bitcoin has no top because fiat has no bottom.
Most investors would be better off if they lost the password to their account and couldn’t log in for a few years.
How I learned to stop worrying and love the bear market: Value your wealth in bitcoin not fiat.
If I had a Bitcoin for every time someone asked me if I know who Satoshi is... I'd be Satoshi.
Every second bitcoin stays out of the spotlight, is another second we get to build unopposed. We can't take this time for granted.
You can't be excited about Bitcoin and fear the bear market. It's like being excited for Christmas but fearing winter. The bear market is a natural part of Bitcoin's mass adoption.
Crypto is the only money that works on the internet. But it's also the only money that works in space. It's really expensive to bring gold bars to Mars.
The fact that your normie friends don't think Bitcoin is cool yet is the reason why there is still massive upside potential.
Feel free to print (fiat money) as much as you need, as I am already all in crypto.
Satoshi walks in to a bar. Nobody knows.
Fiat supply: unlimited. Gold supply: unknown. Bitcoin supply: 21 million.
Most people still don’t know anything about Bitcoin except its price. But they don’t know why Bitcoin has a price in the first place. Hence the skepticism. When you don’t know why something has a price, it is impossible to understand how much it can really be worth.
There can never be more than 17 million people who own 1 full bitcoin. But in practice, there will be far fewer.
Internet allowed you to never have to go to the library. Bitcoin will allow you to never have to go to the bank.
Google's CEO is Indian
Nokia's CEO is Indian Adobe's CEO is Indian Amazon's BOD is Indian MasterCard's CEO is Indian Microsoft's CEO is Indian Pepsico's CEO was Indian indra nooyi Nasa has 58% Indian employees Do something towards $Btc bans in India! ENOUGH IS ENOUGH.
When you trade trends, you can be the last person to join the trend & first person to leave the trend & you can still outperform everyone else in long term simply because others will keep guessing the tops & bottoms while you will keep riding confirmed trends.
You don't need to fomo into positions, if you accumulate early.
If your "financial advisor" doesn't advise you to buy crypto, fire 'em.
Bitcoin doesn't care about your feelings. It also doesn't care about your gender, ethnicity, sexual preference or religion. Bitcoin just is.
Want to prove to an investor that your crypto product is needed? Get people to use it. It is really hard to argue with usage.
Is it possible to be a BTC maximalist and be Vegan? Asking for a friend..
If you think that bitcoin is not going to the mainstream, think again.
Most people don’t know what money is. This is why Bitcoin is still underrated. First, learn what money is. Then, you will be able to leverage the massive opportunity that is Bitcoin.
If you think the people in charge know exactly what they’re doing, do nothing & continue on with your life. If you think those in charge may NOT actually be as smart as they want us to think, buy a little Bitcoin. The status quo is a bet on humans, but Bitcoin is a bet on math.
Bitcoin is only risky to those who don’t understand it.
Short term volatility doesn’t phase long term investors.
If you manage your risk, your profits will take care of itself. If you don't, your parents will take care of you.
For every person in the world, there are only 0.00225764 bitcoins.
If you did your research, this bear market was expected. Bear or bull market, it’s business as usual for true Bitcoiners.
For Bitcoin to succeed, the whole world doesn't need to understand its value proposition. Those who do will profit from its monetization. Those who don't will naturally adopt this better money.
Economic reality imposes itself onto the world whether you're aware of it or not.
This is not financial advice. This is life advice. Buy Bitcoin.
If Banks & Fiat are horse carriages, then Bitcoin isn't merely cars, it's fucking teleportation.
How Bitcoin enables global prosperity:
Bitcoin makes you future-oriented Bitcoin makes delaying gratification easier Bitcoin makes saving & capital accumulation easier Bitcoin makes investing easier Bitcoin makes global trade easier Bitcoin makes advancing civilization easier
Bitcoin is the ultimate marshmallow experiment. People who are able to hodl for longer will tend to have better life outcomes.
Other than your human time, Bitcoin is the scarcest thing on earth. Human time will become more abundant as life expectancy increases. Bitcoin, however, will only become scarcer.
The energy cost of Bitcoin mining will pale in comparison to the improvements in the world’s productivity and prosperity that are enabled by Bitcoin.
Pros of bear market:
-You can buy more Bitcoin -Devs more productive than ever -Weak hands driven out+hodler base strengthened -Focus on fundamentals, not short-term price -Overvalued shitcoins deflated -Critical Infrastructure being built out, making next bull run even fiercer
The more productive we are during the bear market, the harder Bitcoin will pump in the next bull market. Ignore short-term price action. Focus on Bitcoin fundamentals.
Bitcoin bear market is the best time for buying, learning and staying miles ahead of the normies who will once again be late to the game and will buy the top.
Before you invest in Bitcoin, invest in educating yourself about Bitcoin. Understanding Bitcoin will make your conviction much stronger and enable you to maximize your gains.
There are 2 ways you can adopt Bitcoin:
Early on & willingly-> result: allows you to capture upside as Bitcoin grows & becomes widely used or
Much later & not having another choice-> result: failing to capture most upside from Bitcoin's monetization.
The choice is yours.
The overwhelming majority of highly intelligent people I talk to still have no idea why Bitcoin is valuable. We are extremely early. The ability to identify opportunity before others and take advantage of the information asymmetry is key.
Bitcoin will succeed with or without you. Don’t be left behind.
In the 90s people couldn’t imagine that the Internet would replace newspapers, TV, phone calls, shops & many other things. Today, people can't imagine Bitcoin becoming mass adopted money. Bitcoin will do to money what Internet did to information. And money is a way bigger market.
If every millionaire in the US wanted to have just 1 bitcoin they wouldn't be able to. There will always be fewer bitcoins than there are millionaires in the US (let alone the whole world). Ignore this at your own risk.
The corporations & institutions that stand to lose from Bitcoin adoption are made up of individuals who stand to benefit massively from Bitcoin adoption. Realizing that every group or entity is made up of self-motivated individuals is key to realizing why Bitcoin will succeed.
Bitcoin self-selects for people with:
* Low time preference * Long attention span * Commitment * Authenticity * Patience * Persistence * Ability to focus * Ability to go against the mainstream Bitcoin is a marathon, not a sprint.
If you don’t have a deep understanding of:
What money is
Functions of money
Money properties that fulfill its various functions
Then don’t you dare criticize Bitcoin.
Bitcoin doesn’t care:
- what color you are - what sex you are - what age you are - what your religion is - who your parents are - which university/school you went to - who you’re friends with - how expensive your lawyer is Bitcoin cannot discriminate.
You chase money every single day. You stress over money all your life. You worship money.
But you have no idea why money is valuable. Money controls your life because you have no understanding of what it is. Once you ask yourself “What is money?”, Bitcoin will make sense.
Satoshi Nakamoto deserves:
- Nobel Prize in Economics - Nobel Peace Prize - Nobel Prize in Physics But thankfully the last thing Satoshi needs is the validation of the establishment.
Bitcoin is doing better than corporations & altcoins though it never had:
- CEO - Marketing - Salaries - ICO - Partnerships - Headquarters - Customer support Bitcoin is an emergent superorganism. Members contribute according to their ability, driven by passion more than greed.
July 2011 - $31
- “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Apr 2013 - $266 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Nov 2013 - $1,242 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” Dec 2017 - $19,891 - “Damn, I should've bought bitcoin earlier” 2022-2023 - ... - “Damn..”
Successful crypto trading boils down to correctly predicting how the whales will torture the normies next.
Bitcoin doesn’t wait for anyone. It’s up to you if you want to learn this the hard way.
Percentage of world using the Internet in 1995 = 0.4%
Percentage of world using the Internet in 2019 = 58.8% Bitcoin is to money what the Internet is to information. Percentage of world using Bitcoin in 2019 = 0.4% If you thought you are late to Bitcoin, think again.
I didn't choose the dollar.
I didn't choose the euro. I didn't choose the pound. I didn't choose the yen. I didn't choose the ruble. I didn't choose fractional reserve banking. I didn't choose central banks. I didn't choose quantitative easing. I choose Bitcoin.
Go to location
Social Security #
Proof of address
Unreadable legal docs
Wait a week for your funds
Which one will the next generation choose? Many of these wisdom quotes are from the author of the new book called “This ₿ook Will Save You Time”, and he's donating all of the proceeds from the book sales to a Bitcoin developer.
As each stage of the 2018 bear market unfolded, bounces became diminishing in size. The following lists notable price advances that occurred whilst price action was rangebound in a sideways triangle during the second stage: —06-FEB to 20-FEB, a 99% advance. —01-APR to 05-MAY, a 55% advance. —29-JUN to 24-JUL, a 47% advance. Subsequent bounces during the third stage of the bear market, from 24-JUL-2018 to 15-DEC-2018, have been less than 27% in size. From the 15-DEC-2018 low, Bitcoin has thus far rebounded 70% —the second largest advance since the 2017 all-time high. In addition, although not conclusive yet, price action appears to be advancing in impulsive waves. Hence, there is a preliminary cautious opportunity to suggest a new cryptocurrency bull market may be underway. From an Elliott Wave perspective, a new bull may likely suggest the following two abstract scenarios, 'simple' and 'complex':
New all-time highs would suggest a simple scenario, where five Primary degree waves complete beyond the 17-DEC-2017 high; i.e. Primary-1 completed at the 2013 high, Primary-2 completed at the 2015 low, Primary-3 completed at the 2017 high, Primary-4 completed at the 2018 low, Primary-5 currently underway. A failure of the bull market to create new all-time highs would suggest a complex scenario. Such a scenario would propose a cyclical (i.e. short-term) bull market, in an overall ongoing deflationary secular (i.e. long-term) bear market. The 2018 low would be labelled as Primary-W, the current potential 2019 bull market as Primary-X, followed by the resumption of the secular bear market labelled as Primary-Y to break below the 2018 low. Complex composite wave structures are often behaviours of commodity and currency markets. At present, the simple scenario has been adopted until further development of wave structure.
SEC Chairman Jay Clayton: Statement on Cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings
https://www.sec.gov/news/public-statement/statement-clayton-2017-12-11 The world’s social media platforms and financial markets are abuzz about cryptocurrencies and “initial coin offerings” (ICOs). There are tales of fortunes made and dreamed to be made. We are hearing the familiar refrain, “this time is different.” The cryptocurrency and ICO markets have grown rapidly. These markets are local, national and international and include an ever-broadening range of products and participants. They also present investors and other market participants with many questions, some new and some old (but in a new form), including, to list just a few:
Is the product legal? Is it subject to regulation, including rules designed to protect investors? Does the product comply with those rules?
Is the offering legal? Are those offering the product licensed to do so?
Are the trading markets fair? Can prices on those markets be manipulated? Can I sell when I want to?
Are there substantial risks of theft or loss, including from hacking?
The answers to these and other important questions often require an in-depth analysis, and the answers will differ depending on many factors. This statement provides my general views on the cryptocurrency and ICO markets and is directed principally to two groups:
“Main Street” investors, and
Market professionals – including, for example, broker-dealers, investment advisers, exchanges, lawyers and accountants – whose actions impact Main Street investors.
Considerations for Main Street Investors
A number of concerns have been raised regarding the cryptocurrency and ICO markets, including that, as they are currently operating, there is substantially less investor protection than in our traditional securities markets, with correspondingly greater opportunities for fraud and manipulation. Investors should understand that to date no initial coin offerings have been registered with the SEC. The SEC also has not to date approved for listing and trading any exchange-traded products (such as ETFs) holding cryptocurrencies or other assets related to cryptocurrencies. If any person today tells you otherwise, be especially wary. We have issued investor alerts, bulletins and statements on initial coin offerings and cryptocurrency-related investments, including with respect to the marketing of certain offerings and investments by celebrities and others. Please take a moment to read them. If you choose to invest in these products, please ask questions and demand clear answers. A list of sample questions that may be helpful is attached. As with any other type of potential investment, if a promoter guarantees returns, if an opportunity sounds too good to be true, or if you are pressured to act quickly, please exercise extreme caution and be aware of the risk that your investment may be lost. Please also recognize that these markets span national borders and that significant trading may occur on systems and platforms outside the United States. Your invested funds may quickly travel overseas without your knowledge. As a result, risks can be amplified, including the risk that market regulators, such as the SEC, may not be able to effectively pursue bad actors or recover funds. To learn more about these markets and their regulation, please read the “Additional Discussion of Cryptocurrencies, ICOs and Securities Regulation” section below.
Considerations for Market Professionals
I believe that initial coin offerings – whether they represent offerings of securities or not – can be effective ways for entrepreneurs and others to raise funding, including for innovative projects. However, any such activity that involves an offering of securities must be accompanied by the important disclosures, processes and other investor protections that our securities laws require. A change in the structure of a securities offering does not change the fundamental point that when a security is being offered, our securities laws must be followed. Said another way, replacing a traditional corporate interest recorded in a central ledger with an enterprise interest recorded through a blockchain entry on a distributed ledger may change the form of the transaction, but it does not change the substance. I urge market professionals, including securities lawyers, accountants and consultants, to read closely the investigative report we released earlier this year (the “21(a) Report”) and review our subsequent enforcement actions. In the 21(a) Report, the Commission applied longstanding securities law principles to demonstrate that a particular token constituted an investment contract and therefore was a security under our federal securities laws. Specifically, we concluded that the token offering represented an investment of money in a common enterprise with a reasonable expectation of profits to be derived from the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others. Following the issuance of the 21(a) Report, certain market professionals have attempted to highlight utility characteristics of their proposed initial coin offerings in an effort to claim that their proposed tokens or coins are not securities. Many of these assertions appear to elevate form over substance. Merely calling a token a “utility” token or structuring it to provide some utility does not prevent the token from being a security. Tokens and offerings that incorporate features and marketing efforts that emphasize the potential for profits based on the entrepreneurial or managerial efforts of others continue to contain the hallmarks of a security under U.S. law. On this and other points where the application of expertise and judgment is expected, I believe that gatekeepers and others, including securities lawyers, accountants and consultants, need to focus on their responsibilities. I urge you to be guided by the principal motivation for our registration, offering process and disclosure requirements: investor protection and, in particular, the protection of our Main Street investors. I also caution market participants against promoting or touting the offer and sale of coins without first determining whether the securities laws apply to those actions. Selling securities generally requires a license, and experience shows that excessive touting in thinly traded and volatile markets can be an indicator of “scalping,” “pump and dump” and other manipulations and frauds. Similarly, I also caution those who operate systems and platforms that effect or facilitate transactions in these products that they may be operating unregistered exchanges or broker-dealers that are in violation of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. On cryptocurrencies, I want to emphasize two points. First, while there are cryptocurrencies that do not appear to be securities, simply calling something a “currency” or a currency-based product does not mean that it is not a security. Before launching a cryptocurrency or a product with its value tied to one or more cryptocurrencies, its promoters must either (1) be able to demonstrate that the currency or product is not a security or (2) comply with applicable registration and other requirements under our securities laws. Second, brokers, dealers and other market participants that allow for payments in cryptocurrencies, allow customers to purchase cryptocurrencies on margin, or otherwise use cryptocurrencies to facilitate securities transactions should exercise particular caution, including ensuring that their cryptocurrency activities are not undermining their anti-money laundering and know-your-customer obligations. As I have stated previously, these market participants should treat payments and other transactions made in cryptocurrency as if cash were being handed from one party to the other.
Additional Discussion of Cryptocurrencies, ICOs and Securities Regulation
Cryptocurrencies. Speaking broadly, cryptocurrencies purport to be items of inherent value (similar, for instance, to cash or gold) that are designed to enable purchases, sales and other financial transactions. They are intended to provide many of the same functions as long-established currencies such as the U.S. dollar, euro or Japanese yen but do not have the backing of a government or other body. Although the design and maintenance of cryptocurrencies differ, proponents of cryptocurrencies highlight various potential benefits and features of them, including (1) the ability to make transfers without an intermediary and without geographic limitation, (2) finality of settlement, (3) lower transaction costs compared to other forms of payment and (4) the ability to publicly verify transactions. Other often-touted features of cryptocurrencies include personal anonymity and the absence of government regulation or oversight. Critics of cryptocurrencies note that these features may facilitate illicit trading and financial transactions, and that some of the purported beneficial features may not prove to be available in practice. It has been asserted that cryptocurrencies are not securities and that the offer and sale of cryptocurrencies are beyond the SEC’s jurisdiction. Whether that assertion proves correct with respect to any digital asset that is labeled as a cryptocurrency will depend on the characteristics and use of that particular asset. In any event, it is clear that, just as the SEC has a sharp focus on how U.S. dollar, euro and Japanese yen transactions affect our securities markets, we have the same interests and responsibilities with respect to cryptocurrencies. This extends, for example, to securities firms and other market participants that allow payments to be made in cryptocurrencies, set up structures to invest in or hold cryptocurrencies, or extend credit to customers to purchase or hold cryptocurrencies. Initial Coin Offerings. Coinciding with the substantial growth in cryptocurrencies, companies and individuals increasingly have been using initial coin offerings to raise capital for their businesses and projects. Typically these offerings involve the opportunity for individual investors to exchange currency such as U.S. dollars or cryptocurrencies in return for a digital asset labeled as a coin or token. These offerings can take many different forms, and the rights and interests a coin is purported to provide the holder can vary widely. A key question for all ICO market participants: “Is the coin or token a security?” As securities law practitioners know well, the answer depends on the facts. For example, a token that represents a participation interest in a book-of-the-month club may not implicate our securities laws, and may well be an efficient way for the club’s operators to fund the future acquisition of books and facilitate the distribution of those books to token holders. In contrast, many token offerings appear to have gone beyond this construct and are more analogous to interests in a yet-to-be-built publishing house with the authors, books and distribution networks all to come. It is especially troubling when the promoters of these offerings emphasize the secondary market trading potential of these tokens. Prospective purchasers are being sold on the potential for tokens to increase in value – with the ability to lock in those increases by reselling the tokens on a secondary market – or to otherwise profit from the tokens based on the efforts of others. These are key hallmarks of a security and a securities offering. By and large, the structures of initial coin offerings that I have seen promoted involve the offer and sale of securities and directly implicate the securities registration requirements and other investor protection provisions of our federal securities laws. Generally speaking, these laws provide that investors deserve to know what they are investing in and the relevant risks involved. I have asked the SEC’s Division of Enforcement to continue to police this area vigorously and recommend enforcement actions against those that conduct initial coin offerings in violation of the federal securities laws.
We at the SEC are committed to promoting capital formation. The technology on which cryptocurrencies and ICOs are based may prove to be disruptive, transformative and efficiency enhancing. I am confident that developments in fintech will help facilitate capital formation and provide promising investment opportunities for institutional and Main Street investors alike. I encourage Main Street investors to be open to these opportunities, but to ask good questions, demand clear answers and apply good common sense when doing so. When advising clients, designing products and engaging in transactions, market participants and their advisers should thoughtfully consider our laws, regulations and guidance, as well as our principles-based securities law framework, which has served us well in the face of new developments for more than 80 years. I also encourage market participants and their advisers to engage with the SEC staff to aid in their analysis under the securities laws. Staff providing assistance on these matters remain available at [email protected] .
Sample Questions for Investors Considering a Cryptocurrency or ICO Investment Opportunity
Who exactly am I contracting with?
Who is issuing and sponsoring the product, what are their backgrounds, and have they provided a full and complete description of the product? Do they have a clear written business plan that I understand?
Who is promoting or marketing the product, what are their backgrounds, and are they licensed to sell the product? Have they been paid to promote the product?
Where is the enterprise located?
Where is my money going and what will be it be used for? Is my money going to be used to “cash out” others?
What specific rights come with my investment?
Are there financial statements? If so, are they audited, and by whom?
Is there trading data? If so, is there some way to verify it?
How, when, and at what cost can I sell my investment? For example, do I have a right to give the token or coin back to the company or to receive a refund? Can I resell the coin or token, and if so, are there any limitations on my ability to resell?
If a digital wallet is involved, what happens if I lose the key? Will I still have access to my investment?
If a blockchain is used, is the blockchain open and public? Has the code been published, and has there been an independent cybersecurity audit?
Has the offering been structured to comply with the securities laws and, if not, what implications will that have for the stability of the enterprise and the value of my investment?
What legal protections may or may not be available in the event of fraud, a hack, malware, or a downturn in business prospects? Who will be responsible for refunding my investment if something goes wrong?
If I do have legal rights, can I effectively enforce them and will there be adequate funds to compensate me if my rights are violated?
Between Oct. 2 and Nov. 29, 2013, the price of bitcoin rocketed from $116.89 to $1,108.80, according to data from GDAX's retail trading counterpart Coinbase. The digital currency went on to shed ... Bitcoin made headlines on Nov. 29 as the price of a single coin hit an all-time high. Mt. Gox one of the original and biggest bitcoin exchanges, based in Tokyo, recorded the high at $1,242 per coin. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. Leaders Nov 29th 2013 edition. Nov 29th 2013 ... the number of Bitcoins in circulation has a fixed upper limit—so there is no way a central bank can inflate their value away by issuing more ... Nov 2013 $350 — $1,242 from October $150–$200 in November, rising to $1,242 on 29 November 2013. Dec 2013 $600 — $1,000 Price crashed to $600, rebounded to $1,000, crashed again to the $500 range. Stabilized to the ~ $650–$800 range. Jan 2014 $750 — $1,000
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